نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانشجوی دکتری علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 2دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تفکر انتقادی بخش مهمی از برنامه تعلیم و تربیت را تشکیل می‌دهد و باید در تمام مقاطع تحصیلی و با تمام دروس یکپارچه شود. در این مقاله، دیدگاه ریچارد پل، برتراند راسل و رابرت انیس درمورد چیستی و ماهیت تفکر انتقادی، مؤلفه‌های اساسی آن و روش‌های تقویت و پرورش آن مورد بررسی و مقایسه قرار گرفته است. روش این پژوهش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی، به صورت تطبیقی است. نتایج تحقیق نشانگر وجود برخی تفاوت‌ها میان دیدگاه پل، انیس و راسل درمورد تفکر انتقادی است. به ویژه دیدگاه راسل تفاوت‌های بیشتری با دو دیدگاه دیگر دارد. پل و انیس به طور اختصاصی و منسجم در مورد تفکر انتقادی نوشته‌اند که برنامه‌های دقیقی برای عملیاتی نمودن و چگونگی تلفیق تفکر انتقادی با برنامه‌های آموزشی و درسی مطرح کرده‌اند و دیدگاه آنها تمایل بیشتری به سوی دیدگاه روان‌شناختی دارد؛ در حالی که بحث راسل، بیشتر صبغه فلسفی و نظری دارد و تفکر انتقادی را در قالب مفهومی انسان گرایانه از تربیت تبیین و توجیه می‌کند. اما به رغم این تفاوت‌ها، هرسه متفکر در این زمینه اتفاق نظر دارند که پرورش تفکر انتقادی باید هر دو حیطه «باور» و «عمل» متربیان را تحت پوشش قرار دهد و علاوه بر آموزش، در موقعیت‌های عملی تمرین شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparative study of Three Current Views on Critical Thinking and their educational implication: based on the Richard Paul, Robert Ennis and Bertrand Russell’ s point of view

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh vojdani 1
  • mahdi sajadi 2

چکیده [English]

Critical thinking is an important part of education and should be considered in all parts of curriculum in all levels. The essence and the nature of critical thinking, its chief principals and its reinforcing plans are what going to be studied in this essay, using a descriptive-analytical and comparative method.The results show that these three approaches toward critical thinking are not in the same way, especially Russell’s viewpoint which is more different. Specifically, critical thinking has been discussed by Paul and Ennis, and both have purposed exact plans for its practicality and integrating it to the educational curriculum. Their approach, also, have a lot in common with psychological approach, too. But Russell’s viewpoint is of theoretical and philosophical one. He explained and justified critical thinking from a humanistic viewpoint. Regardless of these differences, applying critical thinking both in believes and actions of the teachers is the vary point with which they are, all, agreed. They believe that these points not only should be thought but also should be put into practice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Critical Thinking
  • Richard Paul
  • Bertrand Russell
  • Robert Ennis

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