نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1و 2 استادیار، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرودشت، ایران

2 3 و 4 کارشناش ارشد برنامه ریزی درسی، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرودشت، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر، به منظور مقایسه تأثیر دو روش تدریس استقرایی و قیاسی بر پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان سال سوم راهنمایی در سال تحصیلی 91 ـ 1390 در ناحیه دوشهر شیراز صورت گرفت. روش تحقیق از نوع نیمه آزمایشی به صورت پیش آزمون ـ پس آزمون با دو گروه آزمایشی بوده است. از میان مدارس راهنمایی ناحیه 2 شیراز، یک مدرسه پسرانه و یک مدرسه دخترانه به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و در هر مدرسه دو کلاس، یک کلاس به عنوان گروه آزمایشی استقرایی و یک کلاس به عنوان گروه آزمایشی روش قیاسی به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار اندازه‌گیری یک آزمون 30 سؤالی در مورد درک مطلب و گرامر کلاس سوم راهنمایی بود. این آزمون از آزمون‌های استاندارد شده آموزش و پرورش استخراج شده است و روایی آن توسط گروهی از دبیران و اساتید دانشگاه و همچنین سر گروه‌های آموزشی سازمان آموزش و پرورش فارس مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. پایایی این آزمون با روش آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شد که مقدار 76/0 به دست آمد. در این پژوهش، گروه‌های آزمایشی به شیوه استقرایی و قیاسی تحت آموزش قرار گرفتند. در پایان از هر چهار گروه پس آزمون به عمل آمد و داده‌ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس و آزمون تی گروه‌های مستقل مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که میان گروه‌های آزمایشی تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد. بدین صورت که گروه‌های آزمایشی که با روش استقرایی آموزش دیده بودند، نمرات بهتری را در درک مطلب و دستور زبان انگلیسی نسبت به گروه‌های آزمایشی که با روش قیاسی آموزش دیده بودند، کسب کردند و بیشتر فرضیات این تحقیق مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به جز فرضیه آخر که بین نمرات پیشرفت تحصیلی دختران و پسران در روش استقرایی دردرک مطلب تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد و این بدان معنی است که در اکثر موارد تأثیر روش استقرایی بر دختران و پسران بیشتر از روش قیاسی بوده است و البته با توجه به فرضیات بعدی، تأثیر این روش بر دختران بیشتر بوده است و فقط در فرضیه آخر تفاوت بین آنها معنادار نبوده که تقریباً به یک اندازه بر هر دو جنس تأثیر گذار بوده است. بنابراین می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که استفاده از روش تدریس استقرایی در پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان در درس زبان انگیسی به طور کلی مؤثرتر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of the inductively teaching English on students learning: considering the third grade of junior high school students

چکیده [English]

Inductively and deductively teaching methods are compared in this paper to study how they effect on English learning of third grade of junior high school students in two cities of Shiraz. The research method was of quasi-experimental type, using pre and post tests for two experimental groups. Amongst the junior high schools, in Shiraz, one boy school and one girl school were selected by randomizing. Then, in each school, two classes were selected randomly, too: one as an inductive experimental group and the next class as a deductive group. Measurement test was of the thirty -questions test about comprehension and grammar. Since this test was standardized, its validity and reliability had been confirmed the first by some teacher, professors, and head teachers in Shiraz educational organization and the second by Coronbach’s Alpha as %76. The experimental groups, then, have been taught both inductively and deductively. In the end, post-test was given to these four groups. By Using co-variance analysis and an independent group t-test, data, then, have been analyzed. The findings showed that experimental groups were significantly different in that, the scores of students, being inductively taught, were better than those of deductive one. Regardless of the last hypothesis saying that there is a significant relationship between boys and girls in comprehension, in deductive method, most hypothesis of this research have been verified. It is, therefore, concluded that inductive method is much more effective than the deductive one. Considering the coming hypothesis, it is to say that this very method has been more effective on the girls however, in the last hypothesis, this relationship is not significantly meaningful. What being resulted, therefore, is that, generally, inductive teaching method is so beneficial in English learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • inductive teaching method
  • deductive teaching method
  • educational improvement
  • comprehension
  • grammar
  • Junior High school

Abbasi, M., Ahmadi, G.R, Lotfi, A.R. (2009). Problems of teaching and learning English in high school students from the perspective of Isfahan teachers.Research in Curriculum Planning. Journal of Research in Curriculum Planning, Islamic Azad University-Khorasgan Isfahan) Branch). Volume One. No. 22. Pp. 141-156. [Persian] Ahmadi ,Bijan.(2004). Effectiveness of training methods of problem solving on the mathematic learning. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Shiraz. [Persian] Ahmadinejad,Maryam.(2010). Compare the effectiveness of inductive and deductive methods of teaching mathematics on the learning and recall of the matematic. Master's thesis, University of Shiraz. [Persian] Assaee,Ali.(1959).Is it really difficult to learn a foreign language. Journal of Education.version.30 , No. 7, April:1959, pp. 21-24. [Persian] Bhjat. F.(2008). Inductive and deductive approach to grammar teaching and the result of the grammar test of student. Master's thesis, University of Abadeh. [Persian] Bazrafshan, M.. (1997). The effect of two methods of teaching :from example to rules and from rules to examples in physics course and it’s interaction with intelligent. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Shiraz. [Persian] Ellis, Rod. (2009), Learning a second language (Translation: Ali Rahimi, Z. Bagheri). Tehran: Forest publication. (Original publication 1997). Page 1. [Persian] Fahim, M. , Haqqani, M. (2005). Principles and Technology of Language Learning, Tehran: Rahnama Publications. [Persian] Fahim, M.. (2004). A overview of the history of developments in teaching and learning a foreign language or second language. Language Development, No. 73, Vol 19. Pp. 3-12. [Persian] Ghanaatpishe, F.(2006). Survey of Persian language interference in learning English language high school students. Master's thesis. Tehran University. [Persian] Joyce, b. (1995). It must be taught. (translated by Kievan Amooee), Tehran, Talaye publication. [Persian] Khankhdany Mohammadi, M.(2001). Degree of effectiveness of inductive and deductive methods of teaching English language on the learning of the learners in an English training institution of Shiraz. Master's thesis, University of Shiraz.[Persian] -Shoari nejad, A.A. (1984). Psychology of learning and its application in education, Toss publications,Tehran. [Persian] Brown .H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles. (2th edition). Pearson Education Company. EL- Banna .I. A. (1985) . Deductive versus inductive teaching of grammarian experimental investigation. ERIC- Education Resources Information Center. Guttrie, J. T. (1967). Expository Instruction versus A Discovery Method. Journal of Education psychology. Vol 58(1), 45-49 Guttrie, J. T. and t. l. Baldwin. (1970). Effects of discrimination, grammatical rules, and application of rules on the acquisition of grammatical concepts. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 61(5), 358-364. Guttrie , J. T. (1971). Relationships of Teaching Method, socioeconomic status, and Intelligence in concept formation. Journal of Education psychology. Vol 62(4), 345-351. Haight ,C. Herron,C, &Cole, P.S.(2007). The effects of deductive and inductive instructional approaches on foreign language college classroom. Foreign language Annals, vol . 40, No.2, pp.288-310. - Joyce, B., & Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2000).Model of teaching (6 Th Ed., pp.130 141).Boston. Allyn and Bacon Mitchel, T. J.,& Remond , L. M. (1993). Rethinking grammar and communication. Language Annuals , vol. 26, no.1, pp. 13-19. -Suk myser, Dianed.(1974). Comparison of Inductive and Deductive programmed Instruction on Chemical. Equilibrium for High School chemistry students.Journal of Research in Science Teaching 11,1: 67-77 Tallemadge, Gk. and J. W. sheerer.(1969). Relationships among Learning stylish, Instructional methods, and the Nature of learning Experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969,60, PP: 222-230 Tallemadge, Gk., and J.W. sheerer. (1971).Interactive relationships among learner characteristics, types of learning, instructional methods, and subject matter variables. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 62, 31-38. Tomlinson, R.M. (1962). A comparison of four methods of presentation for teaching complex Technical material. Unpublished PH.D Thesis university of Illinois. United State of America. Wrights , D. P. (1977). Interactions between instructional methods and styles of concept Learning. Journal of Education Resarch.10,3: 159. Yi– Chen Chiang. (2010). The Effects of Adopting Deductive and Inductive Methods in an English Grammar and Writing class for English– Major Freshmen in a Technological college. Master's Thesis. Taiwan.