نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1و 2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه درسی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر تحلیل محتوای کتاب‌های درسی علوم تجربی دوره ابتدایی از لحاظ میزان پرداختن به انواع پرسش‌های درسی بود. در این پژوهش، از روش توصیفی جهت مشخص شدن انواع پرسش‌ها و از روش تحلیل محتوا به منظور بررسی و تحلیل میزان پرداختن کتب علوم تجربی به انواع پرسش‌ها استفاده شد. بدین منظور، واحد تحلیل، جملات پرسشی کتاب بود. با توجه به محدود بودن جامعه آماری که شامل کتب علوم تجربی دوره ابتدایی می‌شد، روش نمونه‌گیری اتخاذ نشد و کل جامعه آماری جهت بررسی انتخاب گشت. ابزار جمع‌آوری اطلاعات چک لیست تحلیل محتوا بود که روایی آن توسط متخصصان علوم تربیتی تعیین گردید. همچنین پایایی ابزار به وسیله فرمول ویلیام اسکات محاسبه شد که ضریب توافق 81% را نشان داد. یافته‌ها حاکی از آن است که در کتاب درسی علوم تجربی سال اول ابتدایی، سؤال‌های هم‌گرا و فردمدار، بیشترین فراوانی و سؤال نتیجه مدار، کمترین فراوانی را دارا هستند. در کتاب درسی علوم تجربی سال دوم ابتدایی، سؤال‌های هم‌گرا و زمینه‌ای، بیشترین فراوانی و سؤال نتیجه مدار، کمترین فراوانی را دارا هستند. در کتاب‌های درسی علوم تجربی سال سوم و چهارم ابتدایی، سؤال‌های هم‌گرا و عملی، بیشترین فراوانی و سؤال نتیجه مدار، کمترین فراوانی را دارا هستند. در کتاب درسی علوم تجربی سال پنجم ابتدایی، سؤال‌های هم‌گرا و موضوع محور، بیشترین فراوانی و سؤال‌های نتیجه مدار و پیش‌بین، کمترین فراوانی را دارا هستند. همچنین نتایج آزمون خی دو نشان داد که بین مقادیر مشاهده شده و مورد انتظار در انواع سؤال‌های درسی در کلیه کتاب‌های درسی علوم تجربی دوره ابتدایی، تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Contently analyzing the experimental science textbooks of primary schools: Based on the types of lesson questions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atieh Sadat hosseini yazdi
  • mina Ahmadian

چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to contently analyze the experimental science textbooks of primary schools, based on the various types of questions. The study benefits from the descriptive method in identifying the types of questions and, also, content analysis method to investigate how the questions are used in the books. To do so, the question type sentences were the units of analysis. Because of the limited number of the statistical population, elementary science text books, no sampling method was applied. To collect the data, content analysis was used, whose validity was confirmed by the experts of the educational science. Its reliability, also, was calculated by William Scott’s formula as %81. Based on the findings, it is concluded that in the textbook of the first grade of elementary school, the concave and individual-oriented questions were of the highest frequency and the result-oriented questions were of the lowest amount. In the textbook of the second level, also, concave and background questions were highly frequent whereas, the result-oriented questions were the lowest. Taking the questions of the textbooks of the third and fourth level into consideration, the analysis presented the superiority of the concave and practical questions over the questions with result-orientation, possessing the least amount. Finally within the scope of the textbook at level five, the concave questions and those with subject orientation showed the highest frequency, and the result-oriented along with the predictive ones were found to be the least. The result of the Chi-square test, also, showed that there exists a significant relationship between the observed values and the expected ones in all experimental science textbooks in primary school.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content Analysis
  • Experimental Science
  • Primary education

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