نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 2استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی، طی چند سال اخیر به عنوان یک جریان فکری نیرومند در حوزه تأملات فلسفی مطرح شده و به سایر حوزه‌ها، از جمله تعلیم و تربیت سرایت کرده است. هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی دیدگاه نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی و دلالت‌های آن در تعلیم و تربیت است. سؤالات پژوهش عبارتند از: 1 ـ معنای نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی چیست؟ 2 ـ نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی چه تأثیری بر مبانی تعلیم و تربیت (هدف تربیت، محتوای یادگیری و روش‌های تدریس) دارد؟ در این پژوهش از روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی استفاده شده است. نتایج این تحقیق حاکی از آن است که بر اساس دیدگاه نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی، هیچ معیار و استاندارد عینی و قابل درک برای عقلانیت و شاخصی برای تعیین صدق و کذب گزاره‌ها وجود ندارد. در فرآیند تعلیم و تربیت هم نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی در قالب دیدگاه سازنده‌گرایی مطرح می‌شود. بر این اساس هدف‌های آموزش در محیط یادگیری باید بیشترین تأکید را بر پرورش تفکر انتقادی و تفکر عمقی داشته باشند. محتوای کتب درسی نیز باید قابل تغییر و بازنگری باشند. نسبی‌گرایی معرفت شناختی بر روش‌های تدریس غیرمستقیم یا دانش‌آموز محور تأکید می‌کند. روش‌هایی که بر اساس آنها فراگیران در محور فعالیت قرار گرفته و منفعل نیستند. به نظر می‌رسد بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده و به کارگیری آنها در امر تعلیم و تربیت، می‌توان بر یکسری از مشکلات موجود فائق آمد و نتایج تربیتی مطلوبی را انتظار داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of epistemological relativism and its role in education

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohsen tatari 1
  • hakimeh alsadat sharifzzadhe 2

چکیده [English]

Recently, epistemological relativism has been mentioned in philosophical thinking as an effective thinking movement. It has also been entered in other fields like education, too. The purpose of this research was to study about the role of epistemological relativism in education. The research questions included: 1- what dose epistemological relativism mean? 2- How dose epistemological relativism affect on the education fundamentals (the purpose of education, learning content and teaching methods)? Based on the epistemological relativism, it was concluded that there was no concrete and understandable standard for rationality and no criterion could distinguish honesty from dishonesty. In the education process, the epistemological relativism is discussed as a constructive view. Therefore, based on the purpose of education more emphasis should be on fostering critical thinking and deep thinking. Also, content of the textbooks should have the capability of being changed or reviewed. The epistemological relativism emphasizes on an indirect or student- centered education. Once applying the found results, it is expected that so many problems in the field of education to be tackled and acceptable educational outcomes to be gained.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • epistemological relativism
  • purpose
  • learning content
  • teaching method
  • education

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