نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 2دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران

3 3دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت آموزشی

چکیده

یکی از دروس پایه در نظام تعلیم و تربیت دنیا، ریاضیات است. طوری که آن را با عنوان «روش درست اندیشیدن» شناخته‌اند. ارزیابی جامع این درس و تعیین ارتباط آن با شاخص‌های نظریه‌های یادگیری، مسیر صحیحی را برای آموزش و یادگیری آن فراهم می‌آورد. پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر نتایج مطالعه تیمز 2007، قصد دارد میزان استفاده از شاخص‌های نظریه‌های یادگیری در فرایند آموزش و نقش آن در بعد کاربرد ریاضی را در کشورهای اسلامیِ هم سطح از نظر تولید ناخالص داخلی، بررسی کند. نوع پژوهش به لحاظ تأثیرگذاری نظریات یادگیری بر کاربرد ریاضی از نوع همبستگی به شمار می‌رود. از بین کشورهای اسلامی بوسنی، الجزایر، تونس و جمهوری اسلامی ایران انتخاب شدند. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان پایه هشتم در سال 2007 در کشورهای اسلامی تحت مطالعه است که از میان آنها بر اساس روش نمونه‌گیری سه مرحله‌ای خوشه‌ای طبقه‌ای، نمونه مورد نظر انتخاب شد. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات شامل پرسشنامه 17 گویه‌ای درباره راهبردهای یادگیری با پایایی 83/0 و آزمون 88 سؤالی در حوزه کاربرد ریاضی بود. روایی ابزارهای مورد نظر توسط متخصصان روانسنجی و روانشناسی تربیتی تأیید شده است. داده‌های مورد نیاز از تارنمای مرکز تیمز و پرلز اخذ شد. از نظر میزان استفاده از شاخص‌های نظریه ساخت گرایی، دانش‌آموزان اردنی با میانگین 17/3 در رتبه اول و دانش‌آموزان ایرانی با میانگین 77/2 در رتبه آخر قرار گرفتند. در شاخص‌های نظریه خبرپردازی، دانش‌آموزان اردنی با میانگین 99/2 رتبه اول و دانش‌آموزان بوسنیایی با میانگین 51/2 در رتبه آخر جای داشتند. در شاخص‌های نظریه شناختی ـ اجتماعی، دانش‌آموزان اردنی با میانگین 16/3، رتبه اول و دانش‌آموزان تونسی با میانگین 69/2 در رتبه آخر قرار گرفتند. در دستیابی به اهداف کاربرد درس ریاضی، دانش‌آموزان بوسنیایی با میانگین47/441، رتبه اول و دانش‌آموزان الجزایری با میانگین412 در رتبه آخر جای گرفتند. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه نشان داد متغیرهای نظریه‌های یادگیری، واریانس متغیر کاربرد ریاضی را به صورت معنادار تبیین می‌کنند. همچنین در همه کشورها به جز الجزایر، نظریه شناختی ـ اجتماعی یک عامل معنادار در تبیین کاربرد ریاضی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparative Study of Using Learning Theories in Instruction Process and its relationship with Mathematical Application Score's in Islamic Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi namdari 1
  • heidar karimyan 2

چکیده [English]

Entitled as " a proper thinking method", mathematics is one of the basic courses in the world education systems .comprehensively evaluating this course as well as identifying it's relation with learning theories indexes would pave the way for better instruction and learning. Regarding TIMSS (2007), this study assessed the use of learning theories indexes in instruction process and its role in math application in Islamic nations that were equal in Gross National Product (GNP). This research considering the effectiveness of learning theories on math application was of correlation type. Amongst the Islamic countries, Bosnia, Algeria, Tunisia, Iran, and Jordan were selected. All eight grade students during the academic year of 2007 in these Islamic countries were considered as the statistical population. The statistical sample, then, was selected thorough three stage stratified cluster sampling. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with 17 items about learning strategies (by reliability of 0/83) and a math application test with 88 questions. Then, the validity of instruments was approved by the psychometric and educational psychology experts. Required data derived from TIMSS and PIRLS website. Taking the constructivism theory into consideration, Jordanian students with the mean score of3.17 were the first and Iranian students with the mean score of 2.77 were the last. In information processing theory, Jordanian students with the mean score of 2.99 ranked first and Bosnian students with the mean score of 2.51 ranked last. Considering social-cognitive theory indices, Jordanian students with mean score of 3.16 were the first whereas, Tunisian students with the mean score of 2.69 were the last. In achieving the applied goals of math, Bosnian students with the mean score of 441.47 gained the first place however, these were the Algerian students who were the last, with the mean score of 412. Multiple regression analysis results showed that learning theories variables significantly explained the math usage variance. Also in all countries except Algeria, social-cognitive theory was a significant factor in math usage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Learning Theories
  • Math Usage
  • TIMSS 2007
  • Islamic Countries
  • gross national product (GNP)

Abedi, A. (1998). Examination of Esfahan elementary school teachers are familiar with learning theories of behaviorism, cognitive-oriented, social, and metacognitive, Research Project of Education in Isfahan, Academy of scientific Research. [Persian] Abedini Baltork, M., Nili, M. R. (2014). Analyzing the role of constructivism as a new learning approach in the textbooks of elementary school, research in curriculum planning, Vol 11, No 10, pp 6-17.[Persian] Ahmadpour Mobarakeh, F., Fadaee, M. R., Rafeipour, A. (2013). Investigation the relationship between beliefs and components of constructivism in mathematic classroom environment, research in curriculum planning, Vol 10, No 9, pp 87-98 .[Persian] Arefi, M., Fathi Vajargah, K., Naderi, R. (2009). Academic and professional knowledge of primary school teacher about learning theories: Evidence from primary school teachers of Hamadan, Quarterly journal of Educational Innovation, Vol 8, No 30, pp 31-52. [Persian] Azimi, M., Piri, M., Zavaar, T. (2013). Relationship of academic burnout and self regulated learning with academic performance of high school students, research in curriculum planning, Vol 10, No 11, pp 116-128. [Persian] Bembenutty, H. (2008). Self-regulation of learning and academic delay of gratification: gender and ethnic differences among college students, Journal of Advanced Academics, v18 n4, PP. 586-616. Cardina, C. E. (1994). Social Learning Theory as a Predictor of Adolescents' Physical Activity Behavior, Thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, ED Physical Activities and Educational Services. Chang, C. Y. (1991). A study of the relationship between college students academic performance and cognitive style, metacognition, motivational and self-regulated factors, Educational Psychology, 24,145-161. Ebrahimi Zarandi, M. (2006). Strategies to increase interest in math in fifth grade, A collection of paper from seminar on innovation in the Elementary school curriculum, Shiraz, pp 39-68. [Persian] Ericikan, K., McCreith, T., & Lapointe, V. (2005). Factors associated with mathematics achievement and participation in advanced mathematics courses: An Examination of Gender differences from an international perspective. School Science and Mathematics: Bowling Green, 105, 5-10. Hatami, M. (2002). Examination of primary school teachers' knowledge of learning theories and their application in the teaching process, dissertation, Tabriz University, school of educational science, 2002. [Persian] Haydon, G. (2006). Education, Philosophy and the Ethical Environment, London: Rutledge. Heidarzadgan, A. R., Mazroghi, R., Jahani, J. (2007). Investigation of effects of the social constructivism theory on the students’ science performance of third grade in Zahedan, journal of curriculum studies, Vol 6, No 2, pp 1-19. [Persian] Kwon, E. S. (2004). A new constructivist learning theory for web-based design learning with its implementation and interpretation for design education, Thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, Art Education. Larson, J. E. (2009). Educational Psychology: Cognition and Learning, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Leilani C (2004). Learning Theory, Available at: http://www.my-zecoach.com/idtimeline/learningtheory.html Malaki, B. (2005). The effect of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to enhance learning and retention, Advances in Cognitive Science, Vol 7, No 3, pp 42-50. [Persian] Martin, M. O.; Mullis, I. V. S. & Foy, P (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report, Boston College: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. Mazer, J. P. (2010). Student Interest in Teaching and Learning: Conceptualizing and Testing a Process Model of Teacher Communication, Student Emotional and Cognitive Interest, and Engagement, Thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio University, Communication Studies (Communication). Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Ruddock, G. J., O’Sullivan, C. Y., Arora, A., Erberber, E. (2008). TIMSS 2007 Assessment Frameworks. Boston College: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center Namdari Pejman, M. Ghanbari, S. (2010). The role of cognitive and metacognitive on student’s math performance of third grade participated in the TIMSS study, Abstracts of First National Conference of Psychology in PNU, Tabriz. [Persian] Nikos M. & George, P. (2005). Student's motivational beliefs, self-regulation strategies use, and mathematics achievement, Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 3, PP.321-328. Olson, J. F., Martin, M. O. & Mullis, I. V. S. (2008). TIMSS 2007 Technical Report, Boston College: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. Pakseresht, M. J. (2007). Educational theories and theory- making challenges in Iranian education system, Quarterly journal of Educational Innovation, Vol 6, No 20, pp 125-148. [Persian] Raeis-dana, F. (1992). Study of the curriculum content in middle school, Research projects, curriculum development center. [Persian] Rahmani, M. (1997), what is the goal of mathematics education and what role is the promotion of mathematics? Roshd mathematics education journal, No 50, pp 52-57. [Persian] Seif, A. A. (2013). Educational psychology (7th Ed). Tehran: Dowran. [Persian] Sheykhzadeh, M., Mehrmohammadi, M. (2004). Designing educational software of mathematics for elementary school students from the point of view of constructivism and its effectiveness, Quarterly journal of Educational Innovation, Vol 3, No 9, pp 32-48. [Persian] Siegler, R. (2002). Thinking and Intelligence, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Sincero, S. M. (Jan 25, 2011). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved Jun 23, 2014 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/social-learning-theory Strayer, J. (2007). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: a comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system, Thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy, Ohio State University, Educational Theory and Practice.