نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 2استادیار دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

رویکرد سازنده گرایی یکی از رویکردهای نسبتاً جدید در زمینه طراحی آموزشی است. هدف از این مطالعه، شناسایی و کشف تجارب دانشجو ـ معلمان از طراحی آموزشی بر اساس رویکرد ساختن گرایی و الگوی طراحی محیط‌های یادگیری سازنده گرای جانسون بود. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه، روش کیفی و از نوع پدیدارشناسی بود. جامعه این پژوهش، کلیه دانشجو ـ معلمان مرکز تربیت معلم شهید بهشتی مشهد رشته علوم تربیتی ـ آموزش ابتدایی بودند که در سال تحصیلی90-91 در آن مرکز تحصیل می‌کردند. روش نمونه‌گیری در این پژوهش روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند بود و با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند تعداد 15 دانشجو ـ معلم انتخاب شدند، که چون محقق به اشباع اطلاعاتی رسید به همین تعداد نمونه بسنده کرد. ابزار پژوهش، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته بود. برای اعتبار نتایج این پژوهش، نتایج و مقوله‌های استخراج شده به تأیید شرکت‌کنندگان رسید. برای تحلیل اطلاعات و متن مصاحبه‌ها از روش کدگذاری استقرایی استفاده شد. نتایج استفاده از الگوی جانسون در کلاس درس تجارب بسیار ارزنده‌ای را برای دانشجو ـ معلمان به دنبال داشت و مهمترین مقوله‌ها و نتایجی که از مصاحبه‌ها استخراج شد عبارت بودند از: استقلال، خودگردانی یا خودکفایی، توسعه توانایی حل مسأله، تسلط در جستجو، بازیابی و ذخیره اطلاعات، تعاملات اثربخش و یادگیری عمیق و اثربخش. با توجه به این نتایج، استفاده از این الگو و سایر الگوهای مبتنی بر رویکرد سازنده گرایی می‌تواند، تأثیر زیادی بر عملکرد و موفقیت دانش‌آموزان و دانشجویان در دروس مختلف داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Teacher training students' experiences of instructional designing based on the constructivism approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • ahmadreza fazeli 1
  • morteza karami 2

چکیده [English]

Constructivism approach is a relatively new approach in the field of instructional designing. The aim of this study was to identify and explore the experiences of the students and teachers of instructional designing based on the constructivism approach and constructivism learning environment design pattern. The research method in this study was qualitative method and was of the phenomenological type. All the students and the teachers of Beheshti Teacher Training Center of Mashhad Elementary Education who had enrolled in this center in the academic year 2012-2013 were chosen as the statistical population .Then, 15 students and teachers were chosen through the target sampling. Due to data saturation, the researchers found this number sufficient. The instrument being used was semi-structured interview. To validate the results of this study, the outcomes and extracted issues were confirmed by the participants. Deductive coding methods, then, was used to analyze the data and the interviews. Applying Johnson's model in the classroom resulted in gaining very significant experiences for both the students and the teachers. Independence, autonomy or self-sufficiency, problem-solving ability, dominance in research, retrieval and storage of information, effective interactions and depth learning were the factors being concluded from the interviews. According to these findings, it can be concluded that this very model and the other models which are based on constructivism approach can have a significant impact on the performance and success of students in different courses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Students' and teachers' experiences
  • instructional designing
  • Constructivism approach
  • Constructivism model of Johnson

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