نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت

2 2دانشیار گروه آموزش پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 3دانشیار گروه فلسفه دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

4 4استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از برنامه‌های مؤثر در پرورش تفکر، فلسفه برای کودکان است و برای دستیابی مطلوب به نتایج آن بایستی، ابتدا مبانی این برنامه با مبانی برنامه درسی ملی سازگار و سپس بر اساس مبانی بومی شده به تدوین محتوا پرداخته شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارائه مبانی فلسفی (معرفت شناسی) برنامه فلسفه برای کودکان در ایران است که با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی و با استفاده از نظام مقوله بندی قیاسی و ترکیب سازوار انجام شده است.اطلاعات با استفاده از روش کتابخانه‌ای جمع‌آوری شده و با به کارگیری نظام مقوله بندی قیاسی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج به دست آمده، بیانگر اختلافات و تشابهاتی بین مبانی معرفت شناسی فلسفه برای کودکان در غرب و برنامه درسی ملی است. حاصل ترکیب سازوار بین آنها مبانی معرفت شناسی فلسفه برای کودکان در ایران است که عبارت از: معرفت دارای دوسطح حقیقی و اعتباری است؛ توانایی انسان در کشف و خلق معرفت؛ معرفت در عین ثبات، پویا نیز است. ابزار شناخت متعدد و عبارت از: حواس، خیال، تفکر، عقل، شهود و مکاشفه؛ محدودیت شناخت آدمی و توجه به واقع گرایی حداقلی؛ معرفت نگاه جامع به نیازهای انسان در جهت بهبود شرایط مادی و معنوی؛ معرفت، روش تحقیق درباره مسائل فلسفی است؛ منابع شناخت متعدد است، وحی، طبیعت، عقل.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The explanation of the philosophical fundamentals (epistemology) of teaching philosophy to children in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Jabal-ameli Foroushani 1
  • Alireza Yousefy 2
  • yahya Ghaedi 3
  • Narges Keshtiaray 4

چکیده [English]

Philosophy is known as one of the effective programs in training thinking in childeran.In order to produce the intended results this program should firstly be adjusted with the national curriculum. Once being localized, the contents are to be designed. The aim of the present research was presenting the philosophical fundamentals (epistemology) of philosophy for children in Iran. The method being used was of qualitative content analysis, while applying deductive category application and adaptive combination method. The data were collected through utilizing library research and then were analyzed using the comparative analysis of categorization system. The results obtained indicated that there were some similarities and differences between epistemology fundamentals of philosophy for children in the West and the national curriculum in Iran. The fundamentals of epistemology of philosophy in Iran which were extracted using the adaptive combination indicated the two states of epistemology namely as “real” and “presumed” human’s capability to discover and create awareness. While being dynamic, awareness is stable, too. Different means for reaching to awareness are as: senses, imagination, contemplation, intellect, intuition, and discovery the limits on understanding the human being and attending to minimal realism. Awareness is a comprehensive outlook to the human’s essentials in order to improve his material and spiritual conditions. It is also a research method used for examining philosophical issues. Inspiration, nature, and intellect are the different resources of awareness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Philosophy for children
  • fundamentals of philosophy (epistemology)
  • adaptive combination

Alavi, Hamid, Reza. (2007). Basic factors in education philosophy and philosophical-educational schools of thoughts. Kerman: Shahid Bahonar University press. Bagheri KHosrow , Sajadieh N & Tavassoli T. (2010). Approaches and methods of research in philosophy of education,Tehran: Institute of Social and Cultural Studies. Craig, Edward: (General editor) (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London: Routledge Daniel Marie-France, Gagnon Mathieu. (2011). Developmental process of dialogical critical thinking in groups of pupils aged 4 to 12 years , journal of Creative Education, 2 (5): 418-428. DeVries Rheta. (2000). Vygotsky, Piaget, and Education: a reciprocal assimilation of theories and educational practices. New Idea in Psychology,18: 187-213. Fernyhough, Charles. (2008). Getting Vygotskian about theory of mind: Mediation, dialogue, and the development of social understanding. Developmental Review, 28: 225- 262. Fisher, Robert. (2006). "Talking to Think", in: D. Jones and Hodson, Unlocking Speaking and Listening, London: David Fulton Press. Fisher, Robert. (2006). Teaching thoughts to children. Safaei Moghadam, M, & Najarian, A (Trans). Ahvaz: Rasesh. Ghaedi, Yahya. (2004). Teaching philosophy to children (theoretical bases). Tehran: Davavin. Golding, Clinton. (2007). ‘Pragmatism, Constructivism and Socratic Objectivity: The Pragmatist Epistemic Aim of Philosophy for Children’, Conference Presentation ©2007Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia Haynes Joanna. (2008). Children as philosophers: Learning Through Enquiry and Dialogue in the Primary Classroom ,London:Routledge Falmer, pages 176. Johnson Carl. (2007). Philosophy for Children as a Paradigmatic Example of Rational Inquiry. Retrieved. (2010). from http://www. indexofpdf. com/ search-inqu+rito+policial. html. Kam, Philip. (2005). Mental stories 1, an investigation for children (2nd ed). Bagheri, A (Trans). Tehran: Amirkanbir. Karimi, Hosein, & Khosronejad, Mortaza. (2002). Teaching philosophy to children through literature, analyzing Lipman pattern. Children literature conferene. Karimi, Roohalah. (2010). Does philosophy for children leads to relativism?. Thoughts and children, human science and cultural studies, 1(2), 101-119. Lipman, Mathew. (2003). "Thinking in Educations", New York: Cambrigde University Press Lipman, Mathew. (2009). "Educating Through Philosophical Inquiery: A Pedagogy of Action and Reflection, An Interveiwe with Maurastriano", in: Farhang Quarterly Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Vol. 22, No. 69. Moser, Paul, (2003). Realism, identicalness, skepticism. Fathizade, M. Zehn, 14. Seyf, Ali, Akbar. (2008). New training psychology, learning and teaching psychology (6th ed). Tehran: Doran. Shoari Nejad, Ali, Akbar. (2009). New philosophies of training. Tehran: Etelaat. Shokoohi, GHolam hosein. (2007). Bases and basics of education (28th ed). Mashhad: Astane Ghodse Razavi. Solomon David. L. (2000). Philosophical Inquiry in Instructional Technology [microform]: The Forgotten Pathway toLearning,http://www. eric. ed. gov/contentdelivery/ servlet/ ericservlet?accno=ed 439700. The American Heritage Dictionary: http://ahdictionary.com/ Yarmohammadian, Mohammad, Hosein. (2010). basics of curriculum planning (7th ed). Tehran: Yadvareye Ketab