نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1کارشناس ارشد آموزش ریاضی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات فارس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، فارس، ایران

2 2دانشیار گروه ریاضی دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران

3 3دانشیار گروه برنامه ریزی درسی دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی فرآیند آموزش اعمال جمع و تفریق در اهداف برنامه و محتوای کتب درسی ریاضی پایه‌ اول ابتدایی سه کشور ایران، ژاپن و آمریکا، صورت گرفت. جامعه آماری این تحقیق، اهداف برنامه و محتوای کتب درسی ریاضی پایه اول ابتدایی سه کشور فوق بود. این تحقیق با روش توصیفی تحلیلی تطبیقی صورت گرفت که برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از روش مطالعه اسنادی و برای تحلیل داده‌ها، از روش تحلیل کیفی استفاده شد. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که در برنامه‌ی درسی در آمریکا تمرکز بر روی افزایش توانایی «حل مسأله» است درحالی‌که برنامه درسی ایران، بیشتر بر روی «مفهوم‌سازی مناسب این دو عمل و ایجاد درک درست"» در دانش‌آموزان تمرکز دارد. برنامه درسی ژاپن هم بیشترین تأکید را بر کسب «درک صحیح» و کشف روش‌های جمع و تفریق «توسط خود دانش‌آموزان» دارد. در فرآیند آموزش این دو عمل کتاب درسی آمریکا، بیشترین تعداد روش آموزش را نسبت به کتاب‌های دیگر داراست. در شروع آموزش عمل جمع و تفریق، به جز کتاب جدید ایران (2011) در همه کتاب‌ها از جنبه ترکیبی جمع و جنبه کاهشی تفریق استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Teaching addition and subtraction: A comparative study on the math curriculum goals and the content of the first-grade math textbook in Iran, Japan, and the USA

چکیده [English]

Focusing on the math curriculum goals and content of the first-grade math textbooks in Iran, Japan and the USA, this research aimed to study about the process of teaching addition and subtraction. The math curriculum goals and content of the first-grade math textbooks of these three countries were considered as the statistical populations of the study. To collect the data documentary research was utilized and comparative method was used in order to analyze the data. The findings showed that the American curriculum focused on enhancing the ability of "problem solving " whereas, the Iranian program focused more on the "making sense and understanding the concept". On the other hand, Japan's curriculum emphasized on "understanding and exploring adding and subtracting ways" by the students themselves. During the process of teaching these two operations, American textbooks introduced the largest number of teaching methods. In the beginning of teaching addition and subtraction, except the new version of Iranian book (2011), all the books, initially teaching addition and subtraction, focused on the combination aspect of addition and reduction aspect of subtraction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • teaching addition
  • subtraction
  • math curriculum program
  • first-grade of elementary school
  • Textbooks

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