نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده برنامه ریزی درسی و نوآوری‌های آموزشی، پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش و پرورش

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی درک دانش‌آموزان سال سوم دبیرستان و دانشجویان کارشناسی و کارشناسی ارشد درباره مفاهیم الکتریسیته ساکن و با روش پژوهش توصیفی پیمایشی انجام گرفته است. جامعه پژوهش شامل همه دانش‌آموزان سال سوم دبیرستان شهر تهران و همه دانشجویان رشته مهندسی کامپیوتر نرم افزار و مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات (دوره کارشناسی) و دانشجویان رشته فیزیک حالت جامد (دوره کارشناسی ارشد) دانشگاه پیام نور تهران واحد رباط کریم در سال تحصیلی 92 ـ 1391 بودند. نمونه آماری را 285 نفر شامل 125 نفر از دانش‌آموزان سال سوم دبیرستان (68 نفر رشته ریاضی و 57 نفر رشته تجربی)، 130 نفر دانشجویان کارشناسی (۷۲ نفر رشته مهندسی کامپیوتر و 58 نفر رشته مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات) و30 نفر از دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد (رشته فیزیک با گرایش حالت جامد) تشکیل داده بودند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از یک آزمون تشخیصی شامل شش سؤال چند گزینه‌ای در باره الکتریسیته ساکن در حد محتوای درسی کتاب فیزیک سوم دبیرستان، استفاده شد، روایی محتوایی این ابزار را نظرات 20 تن از دبیران فیزیک تأیید کردند و پایایی آن به کمک آلفای کرونباخ، 87/0، برآورد گردید. آزمون در شرایط عادی کلاس و بدون اطلاع قبلی شاگردان و دانشجویان مورد نظر به اجرا گذاشته شد. بعد از اجرای آزمون، در سطح توصیفی از مقادیر فراوانی، درصد فراوانی و رسم جداول و نمودارهای مربوطه استفاده شد. سپس برای ارزیابی میزان درک فراگیران، از روش ارزیابی مفهومی استفاده گردید. در این روش، گزینه‌های انتخابی در چهار دسته: درک کامل، درک جزیی، کج فهمی و عدم درکقرار گرفتند. یافته‌های این پژوهش تصورات و کج فهمی‌های جدیدی درباره مفاهیم الکتریسیته ساکن را نشان داده است. بر پایه این یافته‌ها، ضرورت دارد تا در بازبینی برنامه‌های درسی و مواد آموزشی فیزیک که اخیراً توسط وزارت آموزش و پرورش در حال انجام است، به منظور سازماندهی مفاهیم الکتریسیته ساکن و مدل‌سازی آنها در کتاب‌های درسی توجه بیشتری مبذول گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The comparison of misunderstanding of the third grade high school students and B.A and M.A students about the concept of electricity

نویسنده [English]

  • Ashrafoalsadat Shekarbaghani

چکیده [English]

The aim of the present research was to investigate about the comparison of misunderstanding of the third grade high school students and B.A and M.A students about the concept of electricity. The research method was descriptive survey. The population of the study was consisted of all high school students in Tehran, all students of Computer Engineering (Software Engineering), the students of Information Technology (B.A) and the students of solid-state physics (M.A) in Tehran Payame Noor University, Robatkarim, in academic year 1391-1392.285 participants consisted the sample, including 125 students from high school (68 from math major and 57 from empirical science major), 130 undergraduate students (72 Computer Engineering students and 58 Information Technology students) and 30 M.A students (Solid-State physics). A diagnostic test comprising six questions with multiple-choice format was used to collect the required data. To ensure the content validity of the instrument, a panel of 20 teachers of physics verified the questionnaire. The reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha as 0.87.The test was given in a normal condition with no in advance awareness. After the test was run, the frequency, frequency percentage, the tables and corresponding graphs were used. To assess how well students understood, the conceptual evaluation method was applied. In this method, the options were categorized in four types as: full understanding, partial understanding, misunderstanding and lack of understanding.The findings showed new misunderstandings about the concepts of static electricity. Based on these findings, it seems so necessary that physics curricula and instructional materials which are about to be recently revised by the Ministry of Education be taken into more considerations so as to organize the concepts of static electricity and its modeling in related textbooks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • misunderstandings
  • Electricity
  • third grad high school students
  • Bachelor degree students
  • Master degree students

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