نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

هدف از انجام این پژوهش، اثربخشی آموزش از طریق حل مسئله بر تغییرپذیری سبک‌شناختی وابسته به زمینه به مستقل از زمینه دانش‌آموزان بود. روش تحقیق آزمایشی، با پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری کلیه شامل همه دانش‌آموزان سال اول متوسطه پسر و دختر منطقه هلیلان (کهره) استان ایلام در سال تحصیلی 1393-1392 و روش نمونه‌گیری به‌صورت خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای بود. نمونه شامل 300 نفر از دانش‌آموزان بود (163 نفر پسر و 137 دختر) که بعد از مشخص شدن سبک‌شناختی آنها به‌صورت جایگزینی تصادفی در چهار گروه 20 نفری (دو گروه آزمایش و دو گروه کنترل) قرار گرفتند. ابزار پژوهش، آزمون تصاویر پنهان ویتکین و همکاران (1971) بود و مداخله آزمایشی برای هر کدام از گروه‌های آزمایش طی 6 اجرا شد و پس از اتمام جلسه‌های آموزشی از هر چهار گروه پس‌آزمون به عمل آمد. داده‌ها با استفاده از SPSS21 و آزمون کوواریانس دوراهه و تی همبسته تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثربخشی آموزش از طریق حل مسئله موجب تغییرپذیری سبک‌شناختی وابسته به زمینه به مستقل از زمینه دانش‌آموزان دختر و پسر می‌شود؛ بنابراین با به‌کارگیری روش حل مسئله می‌توانیم سبک‌شناختی دانش‌آموزان را از وابسته به زمینه، به نابسته به زمینه تغییر دهیم.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of problem sloving Traning on variability of dependent cognitive style to independent cognitive style of high school students of Holilan(Khahreh)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Veisi Kahreh 1
  • Sadaf Imani 1
  • Rasool Kordnoghabi 2
  • Mehran Farhadi 3
  • Tayebeh Javadi Momtaz 1

1 MA of Educational Psychology, University of Bu-Ali Sina Hamadan, Hamadan

2 AssociateProfessor Department of Psychology, University of Bu-Ali Sina Hamadan, Hamadan.

3 Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, University of Bu-Ali Sina Hamadan, Hamadan.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to Effectiveness of problem sloving Traning on variability of dependent cognitive style to independent cognitive style of school students. This experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and control group. Statistical population included all frist grade state and day high school male and female students in Holillan of Ilam in the academic year 2013-14(1392-93 s.c.) and the sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. The sample was comprised of 300 students(163 person mal student & 137 person femal student) that after measures the students discrimination between the figure students were randomly assigned into the four groups of 20 persons each(2 experimental groups and 2 control groups). The research instrument was Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test (witkin et al, 1971), and experimental treatment was conducted on the experimental groups during 6 sessions and then posttest were administrated on the four groups. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way analysis of variance and t test paried using SPSS21 software. Results showed the Effectiveness of problem sloving Traning causes of variability of dependent cognitive style to independent cognitive style of school students femal and mal. so by employing the method solving problem variability dependent to the independent cognitive style of male and female students.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • problem-solving
  • variability of cognitive style
  • Students

Adibnia, A. Mohajer, Y. Shiekh Pour, S. (2013). Comparsion the effect of problem-sloving and discovery teaching methods on the social problem-sloving skills of female students. Research in Curriculum Planning. Vol, 10. No 9. (Continuous 36).

Akdemir, O., & Koszalka, T. A. (2008). Investigating the relationships among instructional strategies and learning styles in online environments. Computers and Education, 4, 1451-1461.

Al, Saee, Ahmad, J. (1993). The effect of visualization on field dependence and in dependence. International Journal of Instructional Media, 20. (3). 243-49.

Alessio H. (2004). Student perceptions about and performance in problem-based learning. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 4 (1): 25-36.

Anderson, J. R. (2000). Cognitive psychology and its implication (5th ed). United States, Carnegie Mellon University.

Andri, L. (2006). Problem Sloving Teaching Word. The collage William & mary.

Antoniti, G., & Maria, A. (1995). Individual differences in analogical problem solving. Personality and Individual Differencs, 18, 611- 619.

Anwar Khan, Hukamdad, Aqila Akhter, Riasat Ali. (2010). Effect of Using Problem Sloving Method in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students University of Science & Techonology Bannu, NWFP) Pakistan.

Armand, M. (1994). Active teaching methods and role and their importance in education. Tecnology Journal. N, 1. P, 11. [Persian].

Ates, S., & Cataloglu, E. (2007). The effects of students' cognitive styles on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. Research in Science & Technological Education, 2, 167–178.

Azadi, M. (2009). Academic achievement in students with filed dependent/ independent cognitive styles. Journal of Iraninan Psychologist- Vol.5/Issue 18. [Persian].

Bahar, M., & Hansell, M. H. (2000). The relationship between some psychological factors and

Berger, E., & Goldberger, L. (1979). Field dependence and short term memory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49, 87-96.

Birkey, R. C. & Rodman, J. (1995). Adult learning styles and preference for technology programs. http://www2.nu.edu.

Dormody, T.J. (1990). Student/teacher participatory interaction during group problem solving in secondary school agricultural education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (11), 3451A.

Dyer, J. E. & Osborne, E. W. (1996). Effects of teaching approach on achievement of agricultural education students with varying learning style. Journal of Agricultural Education, 3, 43-51.

Dyer, J. E. & Osborne, E. W. (1999). Effects of student learning styles short and long term retention of subject matter using various teaching approaches. Journal of Agricultural Education, 40, 11-18.

Glicksohn, J. Naftuliev, Y. Golan-Smooha, H. (2007). Extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking and field dependence–independence: Will the true relationship please reveal itself? Personality and Individual Differences 42 (2007) 1175–1185.

Glicksohn, J., & Golan, H. (2001). Personality, cognitive style and assortative mating. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1199–1209.

Glicksohn, J., & Naftuliev, Y. (2005). In search of an electrophysiological index for psychoticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1083–1092.

Griggs, S. A. (1991). Learning styles counseling. Ann Arbor, MI: ERIC Counseling and Personnel of Educational Psychology, 68, 589-594.

Guisande, M. A., Paramo, M. F., Tinajero, C., & Almeida, L. S. (2007). Field dependence independence (FDI) cognitive style an analysis of attentional functioning. Psiciothema, 4, 572-577.

Hartman, V. F. (1995). Teaching and learning style preference. Transitions through technology

Hidari, SH. Rasool Zadeh Tabatabaee, K. (2006). Effect solving skills training in reduce the risk of teenage girls tend to run away. Journal of Family Research. 3 (10), PP: 573-585. [Persian].

Hohn, R. L. (1995). Classroom learning and teaching. Boston: Longman.

Homaoni, A. Kadivar, P. & Abdollahi, M.A. (2005). ). Relation between learning styles and cognitive styles and Select fields of study in Students mal high school. Journal of Iraninan Psychologist- Vol.3/No 10. [Persian].

Homayoni, A. Abdolahi, M.H. (2002). Relation between learning and cognitive styles and role Both in Academic achievement in students. Journal of Psychology, Vol. 7, No 2. PP: 179-197. [Persian].

Honeyman, M. S., & Miller, G.s. (1998). The effect of teaching approaches on achievement as satisfaction of field dependent and field independent learners in animal science. Journal of animal science, 76,1710-1715.

Hosseni Nasab, S.D. Vali Nejad,, Y. (2001). Relation between filed dependent/ independent cognitive style and Self Regulation learning with math performance in students. Journal of Educational Psychology University of Ahvaz Chamran. Vol 9. No 3, 4. Pp: 65-78. [Persian].

Hung, W., Bailey, J.H., &Janassen, D.H. (2003). Exploring the Tensions of Problem-Bases Learning: Insights from Reasearch. In D.S. Konwledge and D.C. Sharp, eds., Problem-Bases Learning in the Information Age, New Direction for Teaching Learning #95, San Francisco:Jossey Bass, pp. 13-23.

Jin, H., Yan. (2010). Cognitive styles affect choice response time and accuracy. Personality and Individual Differences, 48 (2010) 747–751.

Kalantari, M. & Sharifi, M. (1999). Relation filed independent and Reading ability in Students grade four and five esfehan ciry. Knowledge & Reasearch in Applied Psychology. No. 6, PP: 73-82. [Persian].

Li-fang Z,. (2004). Field-dependence/independence: cognitive style or perceptual ability?––validating against thinking styles and academic achievement. Personality and Individual Differences. 37, 1295–1311.

Luk suet ching, W. (1998). The influence of a distance- learning environment on students field dependence/ independence. The Journal of Experimental Education, 66, 149-161.

Moazemi Godarzi. (2000). Effect progressive relaxation and problem solving skills training on stress and ways of exposure Girls Runaways A dissertation for the degree of MA in the Tarbiat Modares university. Tarbiat Modares university. [Persian].

Musser, R. T. (1997). Individual differences: How field dependence-independence affects learners. Retrieved Feb. 16, 2005, from http://www.Personal. psu.edu/txm4/paper1.html.

Nadi, M. Gordanshekan, M. Golparvar, M. (2011). Effect of Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Meta-Cognitive on Students' Self-Learning. Research in Curriculum Planning. Vol, 8. No 1,2. (Continuous No. 28, 29).

Nizbet, R. E. Peng, K. Choi, I. & Norenzaean, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic cognitive versus analytic cognitive. Translated by Mehran Azadi, Journal of Advances in cognitive science. 4, PP: 72-83. (Date of the main language, 2001). [Persian].

Ozturk, C. Muslu, G,K. Dicle, A. (2008). A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students’ critical thinking disposition. Nurs Educ. 28 (5): 627-32.

Patrick E. Goode, Phil H. Goddard, Juan Pascual-Leone(2002). Event-related potentials index cognitive style differences during a serial-order recall task. International Journal of Psychophysiology 43, pp.123-140.

Peirce, W. (2000); Understanding students difficulties in reasoning; Part two, the perspective from research in learning styles and cognitive styles; Largo, MD Prince George’s Community College.

Pithers, R.T. (2002). Cognitive learning style: A review of the field dependent-field independent approach. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54, 117-132.

Richardson, J. A., & Turner, T.E. (2000). Field dependence revisited. Intelligence, 20, 255-270.

Ronning, R. R., McCurdy, D., & Ballinger, R. (1984). Individual differences: A third component in problem–solving instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 21, 71-82.

Seldomridge, L,A. Walsh, C.M. (2006). Measuring critical thinking in graduate education: What do we know? Nurs Educ. 31 (3): 132-6. their effect on the performance of grid questions and word association tests. Educational Psychology, 20, 349-365.

Tannenbaum, R. K. (1982). An investigation of the relationship between selected instructional techniques and identified field dependent and field independent cognitive style as evidenced among high school students enrolled in studies of nutrition, Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 68.

Thompson, O. E., & Tom, F. K. T. (1957). Comparison of the effectiveness of pupil centered vs. a teacher centered pattern for teaching vocational agriculture. Journal of Educational Research, 47, 1-69.

Van Berkel, H. Schmidt, H. (2005). On the additional value of lectures in a problem-based curriculum. Educ Health. 18 (1):45-61. VCCA. Journal 9(2), 18-20.

Witkin, H. A. & Goodenough D. R. (1977). FI and interpersonal behavior. Psychological Bulltion. 84.661-689.

Witkin, H. A., Oltman, P. K., Raskin, E., & Karp, S. A. (1971). Manual for embedded figures test, children’s embedded figures test, and group embedded figures test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Yazad Pour, N. Yousefi, A. R. & Haghani, F. (1999). The Impact Training by The project and cooperative on Academic Achievement in students femal high school folad city in Statistics and Modelling Course. Knowledge & Reasearch in Applied Psychology. No. 22, University Islamic Azad Khvarsgan. [Persian].

Zhang, L. (2006). Does student-teacher thinking style match-mismatch matter in students' achievement? Educational Psychology, 3, 395-409.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adibnia, A. Mohajer, Y. Shiekh Pour, S. (2013). Comparsion the effect of problem-sloving and discovery teaching methods on the social problem-sloving skills of female students. Research in Curriculum Planning. Vol, 10. No 9. (Continuous 36).

Akdemir, O., & Koszalka, T. A. (2008). Investigating the relationships among instructional strategies and learning styles in online environments. Computers and Education, 4, 1451-1461.

Al, Saee, Ahmad, J. (1993). The effect of visualization on field dependence and in dependence. International Journal of Instructional Media, 20. (3). 243-49.

Alessio H. (2004). Student perceptions about and performance in problem-based learning. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 4 (1): 25-36.

Anderson, J. R. (2000). Cognitive psychology and its implication (5th ed). United States, Carnegie Mellon University.

Andri, L. (2006). Problem Sloving Teaching Word. The collage William & mary.

Antoniti, G., & Maria, A. (1995). Individual differences in analogical problem solving. Personality and Individual Differencs, 18, 611- 619.

Anwar Khan, Hukamdad, Aqila Akhter, Riasat Ali. (2010). Effect of Using Problem Sloving Method in Teaching Mathematics on the Achievement of Mathematics Students University of Science & Techonology Bannu, NWFP) Pakistan.

Armand, M. (1994). Active teaching methods and role and their importance in education. Tecnology Journal. N, 1. P, 11. [Persian].

Ates, S., & Cataloglu, E. (2007). The effects of students' cognitive styles on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. Research in Science & Technological Education, 2, 167–178.

Azadi, M. (2009). Academic achievement in students with filed dependent/ independent cognitive styles. Journal of Iraninan Psychologist- Vol.5/Issue 18. [Persian].

Bahar, M., & Hansell, M. H. (2000). The relationship between some psychological factors and

Berger, E., & Goldberger, L. (1979). Field dependence and short term memory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49, 87-96.

Birkey, R. C. & Rodman, J. (1995). Adult learning styles and preference for technology programs. http://www2.nu.edu.

Dormody, T.J. (1990). Student/teacher participatory interaction during group problem solving in secondary school agricultural education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (11), 3451A.

Dyer, J. E. & Osborne, E. W. (1996). Effects of teaching approach on achievement of agricultural education students with varying learning style. Journal of Agricultural Education, 3, 43-51.

Dyer, J. E. & Osborne, E. W. (1999). Effects of student learning styles short and long term retention of subject matter using various teaching approaches. Journal of Agricultural Education, 40, 11-18.

Glicksohn, J. Naftuliev, Y. Golan-Smooha, H. (2007). Extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking and field dependence–independence: Will the true relationship please reveal itself? Personality and Individual Differences 42 (2007) 1175–1185.

Glicksohn, J., & Golan, H. (2001). Personality, cognitive style and assortative mating. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1199–1209.

Glicksohn, J., & Naftuliev, Y. (2005). In search of an electrophysiological index for psychoticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1083–1092.

Griggs, S. A. (1991). Learning styles counseling. Ann Arbor, MI: ERIC Counseling and Personnel of Educational Psychology, 68, 589-594.

Guisande, M. A., Paramo, M. F., Tinajero, C., & Almeida, L. S. (2007). Field dependence independence (FDI) cognitive style an analysis of attentional functioning. Psiciothema, 4, 572-577.

Hartman, V. F. (1995). Teaching and learning style preference. Transitions through technology

Hidari, SH. Rasool Zadeh Tabatabaee, K. (2006). Effect solving skills training in reduce the risk of teenage girls tend to run away. Journal of Family Research. 3 (10), PP: 573-585. [Persian].

Hohn, R. L. (1995). Classroom learning and teaching. Boston: Longman.

Homaoni, A. Kadivar, P. & Abdollahi, M.A. (2005). ). Relation between learning styles and cognitive styles and Select fields of study in Students mal high school. Journal of Iraninan Psychologist- Vol.3/No 10. [Persian].

Homayoni, A. Abdolahi, M.H. (2002). Relation between learning and cognitive styles and role Both in Academic achievement in students. Journal of Psychology, Vol. 7, No 2. PP: 179-197. [Persian].

Honeyman, M. S., & Miller, G.s. (1998). The effect of teaching approaches on achievement as satisfaction of field dependent and field independent learners in animal science. Journal of animal science, 76,1710-1715.

Hosseni Nasab, S.D. Vali Nejad,, Y. (2001). Relation between filed dependent/ independent cognitive style and Self Regulation learning with math performance in students. Journal of Educational Psychology University of Ahvaz Chamran. Vol 9. No 3, 4. Pp: 65-78. [Persian].

Hung, W., Bailey, J.H., &Janassen, D.H. (2003). Exploring the Tensions of Problem-Bases Learning: Insights from Reasearch. In D.S. Konwledge and D.C. Sharp, eds., Problem-Bases Learning in the Information Age, New Direction for Teaching Learning #95, San Francisco:Jossey Bass, pp. 13-23.

Jin, H., Yan. (2010). Cognitive styles affect choice response time and accuracy. Personality and Individual Differences, 48 (2010) 747–751.

Kalantari, M. & Sharifi, M. (1999). Relation filed independent and Reading ability in Students grade four and five esfehan ciry. Knowledge & Reasearch in Applied Psychology. No. 6, PP: 73-82. [Persian].

Li-fang Z,. (2004). Field-dependence/independence: cognitive style or perceptual ability?––validating against thinking styles and academic achievement. Personality and Individual Differences. 37, 1295–1311.

Luk suet ching, W. (1998). The influence of a distance- learning environment on students field dependence/ independence. The Journal of Experimental Education, 66, 149-161.

Moazemi Godarzi. (2000). Effect progressive relaxation and problem solving skills training on stress and ways of exposure Girls Runaways A dissertation for the degree of MA in the Tarbiat Modares university. Tarbiat Modares university. [Persian].

Musser, R. T. (1997). Individual differences: How field dependence-independence affects learners. Retrieved Feb. 16, 2005, from http://www.Personal. psu.edu/txm4/paper1.html.

Nadi, M. Gordanshekan, M. Golparvar, M. (2011). Effect of Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Meta-Cognitive on Students' Self-Learning. Research in Curriculum Planning. Vol, 8. No 1,2. (Continuous No. 28, 29).

Nizbet, R. E. Peng, K. Choi, I. & Norenzaean, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic cognitive versus analytic cognitive. Translated by Mehran Azadi, Journal of Advances in cognitive science. 4, PP: 72-83. (Date of the main language, 2001). [Persian].

Ozturk, C. Muslu, G,K. Dicle, A. (2008). A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students’ critical thinking disposition. Nurs Educ. 28 (5): 627-32.

Patrick E. Goode, Phil H. Goddard, Juan Pascual-Leone(2002). Event-related potentials index cognitive style differences during a serial-order recall task. International Journal of Psychophysiology 43, pp.123-140.

Peirce, W. (2000); Understanding students difficulties in reasoning; Part two, the perspective from research in learning styles and cognitive styles; Largo, MD Prince George’s Community College.

Pithers, R.T. (2002). Cognitive learning style: A review of the field dependent-field independent approach. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54, 117-132.

Richardson, J. A., & Turner, T.E. (2000). Field dependence revisited. Intelligence, 20, 255-270.

Ronning, R. R., McCurdy, D., & Ballinger, R. (1984). Individual differences: A third component in problem–solving instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 21, 71-82.

Seldomridge, L,A. Walsh, C.M. (2006). Measuring critical thinking in graduate education: What do we know? Nurs Educ. 31 (3): 132-6. their effect on the performance of grid questions and word association tests. Educational Psychology, 20, 349-365.

Tannenbaum, R. K. (1982). An investigation of the relationship between selected instructional techniques and identified field dependent and field independent cognitive style as evidenced among high school students enrolled in studies of nutrition, Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 68.

Thompson, O. E., & Tom, F. K. T. (1957). Comparison of the effectiveness of pupil centered vs. a teacher centered pattern for teaching vocational agriculture. Journal of Educational Research, 47, 1-69.

Van Berkel, H. Schmidt, H. (2005). On the additional value of lectures in a problem-based curriculum. Educ Health. 18 (1):45-61. VCCA. Journal 9(2), 18-20.

Witkin, H. A. & Goodenough D. R. (1977). FI and interpersonal behavior. Psychological Bulltion. 84.661-689.

Witkin, H. A., Oltman, P. K., Raskin, E., & Karp, S. A. (1971). Manual for embedded figures test, children’s embedded figures test, and group embedded figures test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Yazad Pour, N. Yousefi, A. R. & Haghani, F. (1999). The Impact Training by The project and cooperative on Academic Achievement in students femal high school folad city in Statistics and Modelling Course. Knowledge & Reasearch in Applied Psychology. No. 22, University Islamic Azad Khvarsgan. [Persian].

Zhang, L. (2006). Does student-teacher thinking style match-mismatch matter in students' achievement? Educational Psychology, 3, 395-409.