نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی، عضو هیئت‌علمی و مدیر گروه نوآوری‌های آموزشی و درسی

2 استاد برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف مفهوم‌سازی برنامه درسی ناکارآمد (زائد) در نظام آموزش عالی ایران انجام شده است. پارادایم حاکم بر مطالعه حاضر کیفی و با استفاده از روش تحقیق داده بنیاد انجام شده است. حوزة مورد مطالعه این پژوهش شامل صاحب‌نظران برنامه درسی و نظام آموزش عالی ایران است که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند با 21 نفر صاحب‌نظر مصاحبه شد. ابزار جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختارمند بود که با این تعداد نمونه اشباع تئوریک در داده‌ها حاصل شد. تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها در قالب مدل پارادایم اشتراوس و کوربین انجام گرفت. جمعاً 103 کد باز، 18 کد محوری و 6 کد انتخابی از مصاحبه‌های صورت گرفته در طی سه مرحله کدگذاری شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که مهم‌ترین عوامل علی، مداخله‌گر، زمینه‌ای، راهبردها و پیامد به ترتیب عبارت است از: انگیزة کم در بین استادان و دانشجویان، حضور طراحان و برنامه‌ریزان در تدوین برنامه درسی با رویکرد سلیقه‌ای، سیاست‌های تمرکزگرایانه و عرضه‌محور، دانش‌محور نبودن اقتصاد کشور، مسئله‌محور نبودن برنامه‌های درسی و اختصاص بودجه ناکافی، افزایش نرخ بیکاری به‌ویژه در بین دانش‌آموختگان، نیروی انسانی ناکارآمد، فرار مغزها و کاهش بی‌اعتمادی به آموزش عالی از جمله یافته‌های این مطالعه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Conceptualizing of Scraped Ccurriculum in Iran’s higher education system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Maryam Hosseini Largani 1
  • Kourosh Fathi Vajargah 2

1 Faculty member of Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education

2 Professor of Shahid Beheshti Univeristy

چکیده [English]

This study aims to conceptualize the curriculum inefficient (scraped) in Iran's higher education system. The paradigm of the study is qualitative and used grounded research method. The study population consisted of experts in curriculum and system of higher education, which by using of Targeted sampling, 21 experts were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews used to collect data that with this numbers the theoretical saturated sample achieved. Analysis of the data was carried in the paradigmatic model. A total of 103 open, 18 axials and 6 selected codes from conducted interviews in three stages obtained. The results of this study indicate that the most important causative, interveners, backgrounds factors, strategies, and outcomes are respectively: low motivated students, biased approach curriculum designers, centralized and Supply based policies, Lack of knowledge-based market, not issue-centered curriculum and inadequate budget allocation, rising unemployment rates, especially among graduates, inefficient human resources, brain drain and reduced distrust to higher education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conceptualizing
  • Scraped Curriculum and higher education system
  • Grounded theory

of Phenomenological Research Method in Clinical Sciences. Strategic Quarterly, 19 (54): 224-207.

Akgun, A.E.& Lynn G.S.& Byrne, J.C. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of unlearning in new product development teams. Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 23, pp. 7388.

A. L. Corbin, J. L. (1998). Basics of qualititive research: techniques and procedures for developing grounder theory 2 en ed. Thousand oaks: sage publications.

Barnett. R & Coate. K (2004), Engaging the Curriculum in Higher Education (Society for Research into Higher Education). http://www.amazon.com/Engaging-Curriculum-Education-Society-Research/dp/0335212891.

Barnett, R. & Coate, K. (2005). Engaging the Curriculum in Higher Education. Maidenhead: SRHE/Open University Press.

Brock, T. (2010). Young adults and higher education: Barriers and breakthroughs to success. The Future of Children, 20(1), 109-132.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.).

London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Charmaz, K. (2010). Studying the experience of chronic illness through grounded theory. In New directions in the sociology of chronic and disabling conditions (pp. 8-36). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

 Chelliah, S., Bujang, T., Lew, T. Y., & Adriel, K. (2016). Relationship between training components, work environment and participants' characteristics on transfer of training skills and organizational commitment

Collins J. (2009). Education Techniques for Lifelong Learning. RadioGraphics. 2009; 29(2): 613-22.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research (3e), Basics of qualitative research, Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand oaks, USA: Sage

Corbin, J., and Strauss, A. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Sage Publications, Inc.

Cooper, JH (2005). A training Programme Based on the Principles of Social Constru ctivism and Focused on Developing People for the Future World of Work an Evaluation. submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree Magisters Commeric in the Faculty of Economic and Buseiness Sciences at the University of Pretoria.

Elyasi, Mohammad. (2003). Psychology of Happiness and joy. Advisor Message Publication. Imam Hussein University (pbuh). October 2003; 31st.

Estep Jr, James Riley. (2012). Where ypu go, there you are: The need for Educational Maps in the Church. Handbook of Mapping Out Curriculum in Your Church.pp 1-20. United States of America: Published by B&H Publishing Group Nashville, Tennessee.

Hasanefendic, S., Heitor, M., & Horta, H. (2016). Training students for new jobs: The role of

 

technical and vocational higher education and implications for science policy in Portugal. Technological Forecasting and Social Change.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

Farastkhah, Maghsood (2016): Qualitative Research Method in Social Sciences with Emphsis on "Based on" (Grounded Theory of GTM), Agah Publication, Second Edition.

Farasatkhah, Maqsood; Maniei, Reza (2014), Factors Affecting Faculty Members' Participation in Higher Education Policy Planning and University Planning, Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning, Volume 20 Issue 3.

Fathi Vajargah, Kourosh (2012), Effective Teaching Techniques, Ayij Publishing, First Edition.

Fathi Vahjargah, Kourosh. (2010). Design and Validation of the Model for Reforming and Revising the Humanities Curriculum - Iran's Universities and Institutes of Higher Education. Research Center for Cultural Studies (Research Project).

Fathi Vajargah, Kourosh and Khoshnoodifar, Mehrnoush (2013), Distance Education and Internationalization of Curriculum in Higher Education, First Edition, Ayij Publication.

Fathi Vahjargah, Kourosh (2012) A wasteful or Useless Curriculum. Editorial Quarterly Journal Studies in Higher Education. Third. Seventh number.

Fathi Vajargah, Kourosh (2013) Dikom Analysis Guide. Second edition. Tehran: Symaie Danesh Publication.

Forrest, S, & Lane, A. (2014). Submission to Department of Education Review of the National Curriculum.

Forrest, S. (2014). Scrap the national curriculum. Review-Institute of Public Affairs, 65(4), 24. retrieved from; http://www.ipa.org.au/portal/uploads/Forrest-Nat_Curriculum.pdf.

Hajj Bagheri, Adib, Parvizi, Mohsen, and Salsali, Sarvar (2010). Qualitative Research Methods. Bashari Publications.

Hosseini Lograni, Seyedeh Maryam and et al. (2015), "Conceptualization of Redundant Learning and its Reduction in the Iranian Higher Education System from the Point of View of Higher Education Specialists", Study on Measuring and Educational Evaluation, Volume 5, Issue 9, Spring 2015, p. 39 - 9.

Ilich, Eyvan (2010). Deschoolification from the community, translated by Davar e Shaikhivandi. First edition, Gissa publication.

Khadivi, Asadollah, Mafakheri, Afsaneh (2011), Relationship between Achievement Motivation, Source of Control, Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of Secondary school students of Tabriz five districts, Journal of Educational Sciences, Year 4, No. 13-45. P. 66.

Klein, J. I. (1989). Parenthetic Learning in Organizations: Toward the Unlearning of the Unlearning Model. The Journal of Management Studies, 26(3), 291.

Karami, Morteza and Fatahi, Hoda. (2011). Change in Higher Education Curriculum (Case Study: Master's Degree Planning Curriculum), Curriculum Studies Quarterly.

- Klein, M, F (2001). Pattern Curriculum Design, Views, Approaches and Perspectives. Translated by Mehr Mohammadi, Mahmood. Mashhad: Publication (Date of publication in original language 1985).

Kuraev, A. (2016). Soviet higher education: an alternative construct to the western university paradigm. Higher Education, 71(2), 181-193.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Johnson-Mardones, D. F. Understanding Curriculum as Phenomenon, Field, and Design: A Multidimensional conceptualization.

MacLaren, I. (2012). The contradictions of policy and practice: Creativity in higher education. London Review of Education, 10(2), 159-172.

Makinen, Marita& Annala, Johanna. (2010). Meaning Behind Curriculum Development in Higher Education. PRHE Conference Edition, Volum 4 (2).                                                        

Eisner, E. W. (1985). The educational imagination (p. 176). New York: Macmillan

Money, J., Dinning, T., Nixon, S., Walsh, B., & Magill, C. (2016). Co-Creating a Blended Learning Curriculum in Transition to Higher Education: A Student Viewpoint. Creative Education, 7(09), 1205.

Parker, L. (2016). Religious environmental education? The new school curriculum in Indonesia. Environmental Education Research, 1-24.

Rabah, Iman. (2012). The Influence of Assessment in Constructing a Hidden Curriculum in Higher Education: Can Self and Peer Assessment Bridge the Gap between the Formal and the Hidden Curriculum? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol 2, No11.

Shireen J. Fahey (2012) Curriculum change and climate change: Inside outside pressures in higher education, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44:5, 703-722

Saks, A. M. & Belcourt, M. (2006). An investigation of training activities and transfer of training in organizations, Human Resource Management, 45 (4): 629-648.

Sarkararanani, Mohammad Reza (2013). Perspective: Change the Curriculum to Improve Education. Teacher Magazine (pages 34-37).

Strauss, A. L. Corbin, J. L. (1998). Basics of qualititive research: techniques and procedures for developing grounder theory 2 en ed. Thousand oaks: sage publications.

United Nations childrenʼs Fund. (2000). Curriculum Report Card. New

Zitter, I., Hoeve, A., & de Bruijn, E. (2016). A Design Perspective on the School-Work Boundary: A Hybrid Curriculum Model. Vocations and Learning, 9(1), 111-131.