نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استاد برنامه‌ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 استاد آموزش علوم، گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

4 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

یادگیری خدمت‌رسانی (Service Learning) به‌عنوان یکی از رویکردها و گفتمان‌های جدید یادگیری، تاریخچه‌ای در حدود یک قرن دارد. یادگیری مفاهیم درسی از طریق مشارکت در یک طرح خدمت‌رسانی اجتماعی را یادگیری خدمات‌رسانی می‌گویند. این رویکرد آموزشی که یکی از انواع یادگیری تجربی است، فرصتی برای یادگیرندگان فراهم می‌کند تا نیازهای اجتماعشان را بشناسند، برای رفع یکی از آن نیازها برنامه‌ریزی کنند و حین مراحل مختلف کار (از برنامه‌ریزی تا اجرای طرح و ارزیابی آن) مفاهیم مندرج در کتاب درسی را یاد بگیرند. یادگیری خدمات‌رسانی تجربه آموزش سنتی را با زندگی واقعی پیوند می‌دهد و امکان مواجهه با چالش‌ها و مسائل زندگی روزمره را برای یادگیرندگان مهیا می‌کند. این گفتمان آموزشی، بر برنامه درسی و محتوای آموزشی متمرکز است و نه‌تنها کتاب درسی را فراموش نمی‌کند بلکه از طریق تجربه عملی و به‌کارگیری آموزه‌های مدرسه برای خدمت به گروهی از جامعه که به آن خدمت نیاز دارند، درک یادگیرندگان از محتوای آموزشی را عمیق‌تر و ملموس‌تر می‌کند.آیزنر (Eisner.W.Elliot) این نوع یادگیری را به‌عنوان یکی از ضروریات مدارس و دانشگاه‌های امروز تلقی می‌کند و لزوم توجه به تربیت دانشجویان و دانش‌آموزانی متبحر با مهارت‌های فنی "بررسی و شناخت"، "تفکر انتقادی" و "برقراری ارتباط مؤثر"را تأکید می‌کند. در این پژوهش کیفی از «جستار نظرورزانه» به‌عنوان روش پژوهش و از «بررسی مستندات» به‌عنوان ابزار جمع‌آوری اطلاعات استفاده شده است. با توجه به هدف مطالعه مباحثی مانند تعریف، مبانی فلسفی، مدل‌های این نوع از یادگیری، برنامه درسی مبتنی بر آن، اصول، مزایا و معایب این نوع آموزش به‌منظور ببین ضرورت توجه به یادگیری خدمات‌رسانی در طراحی برنامه‌های درسی نظام آموزشی ایران مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Service learning: applaying educational theory in practice

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Marandi, 1
  • Yusef Adib 2
  • Eskandar Fathiazar 3
  • Firooz Mahmoodi 4

1 Ph.D in Curriculum Studies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Education, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Service learning has a history of nearly a centry as one oflearn new approaches and discourses. Learning course concepts through participation in a community service project says service learning. This educational approach is one of a variety of experiential learning,provides an opportunity for learners to recognize their social needs and planning to meet one of that needs,during the various phases of work (from planning to implemention and evaluation) set written in the textbook concepts to learn.Service learning links experience of traditional teaching with real life and ability to meet the challenges and problems life provides for learners.This educational discourse, focusing on curriculum and educational content and not only don’t forget textbook, But also through practical experience and applying teaching of the school to serve the people of the community that it serves require, learners understand of the educational content is deeper and more tangible. Eisner argues,this kind of learning is essential for schools and universities and emphasizes on paying attention to educate genius students with technical skills including assesment, critical thinking,and effective communication, which is referred to as service learning. In this study, "Speculative Essay" is used as research method and "Review of Documentation" is used as a tool for information gathering. According to the research purpose, topics such as Definition of service learning, philosophical foundations of service learning, the models in this education, principal andadvantages and disadvantages for the education related to explain the necessity of attention to service learning in designing curricula and educational system in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Curriculum
  • Speculative Essay
  • educational theory
  • service learning

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