نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 تأثیر نظریة انتقادی بر نظریه‌پردازی در حوزة مطالعات برنامه‌درسی

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

3 عضو هیئت‌علمی دانشگاه فرهنگیان

4 عضو هیأت علمی گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، تبیین نظریه‌های منبعث از نظریه انتقادی در حوزه مطالعات برنامه‌درسی و کاربردهای آن است. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، توصیفی-تحلیلی و برای دستیابی به داده‌های معتبر از روش"بررسی مستندات"بهره گرفته شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که نظریه‌های کلیدی منبعث از نظریه انتقادی شامل، نظریه بازتولید، نظریه مقاومت و برنامه‌درسی پنهان می‌باشند. نظریة بازتولید به دنبال ارائه این ایده است که نظام تربیتی در پوشش برنامه‌درسی با فراهم کردن شرایطی خاص به بازتولید فرهنگ موجود پرداخته و در خدمت ایدئولوژی حاکم است. برنامه درسی پنهان به این امر اشاره دارد که در لوای برنامه‌درسی مدرسه، نظام حاکم به‌صورت پنهان اما آگاهانه دانش‌آموزان را در جهت مورد نظر سوق می‌دهد. نظریه مقاومت به این امر اشاره دارد که دانش‌آموزان طبقه پایین لزوماً در برابر برنامه‌درسی مدرسه که به بازتولید وضع موجود مبادرت می‌کند، منفعل نبوده بلکه در برابر آن مقاومت می‌کنند؛ بنابراین اصلی‌ترین نقشی که نظریه انتقادی در حوزه مطالعات برنامه درسی گذاشته، جهت‌گیری برنامه‌درسی از پارادایم سنت‌گرایی به بازمفهوم‌گرایی است. در این فضا نظریه‌پردازان با در دست گرفتن عَلَم سیاسی و مطرح کردن دیدگاه‌های نئومارکسیستی در برنامه‌درسی این رشته را از فضای تکنیکی برنامه‌ریزی درسی به مطالعات برنامه‌درسی و حوزه‌ای کاملاً متأثر از فرهنگ و سیاست قلمداد نمودند و معلمان را به‌عنوان کارگزاران برنامه‌درسی تحت عناوین کارگزاران و روشنفکران مردمی قلمداد کرده و آن‌ها را موظف نموده تا به‌عنوان کاری اخلاقی- سیاسی، نظام سیاسی را به چالش بکشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Critical theory impact on the curriculum studies theorizing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sirus Mansoori 1
  • Mohammad Hasan Karimi 2
  • Majid Kowsary 3
  • Meimanat Abedini Baltork 4

1 Faculty Member of Educational Sciences, Islmic Azad University, Ardakan Branch, Ardakan, Iran.

2 Faculty Member of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Faculty Member of Educational Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

4 Faculty Member of Educational Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Critical theory in recent decades have been affected field of education and curriculum studies that its results are emergence of terms and theories such as the reproduction theory, resistance theory and hidden curriculum that used frequently in educational texts. The general idea of critical theorists that generally are Neo-Marxist is based on conflict between the dominant and the dominated in education. This paper has examined at analysis approach, both study of critical theory, and also theories derived from the field of curriculum studies. In addition, given the criticisms and then its application to curriculum. Theories and key concepts derived from critical theory are including the reproduction theory, resistance theory and hidden curriculum which are discussed in this article. Reproduction theory is following this idea that educational system and the curriculum by providing specific conditions to reproduce the existing culture and is in domination hands. Hidden curriculum refers to the fact that in the context of the school curriculum, but conscious, students push gives to the ruling system. Resistance theory that the human factor at this point important is believed that Students and down stairs in the school curriculum is resistant to existence curriculum. Finally, the paper looks at the application of some elements of the curriculum based on critical theory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • critical theory
  • Curriculum
  • reproduction theory
  • resistance theory
  • hidden curriculum

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