نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تکنولوژی آموزشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران.

2 دانشیار علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران.

چکیده

ارائه موضوعات پیچیده از طریق رویکردهای آموزش خطی با مشکلاتی همراه است زیرا هر چه حوزه محتوایی پیچیده‌تر می‌شود، از ساختار و تجانس کمتر و نیز به همپوشانی بیشتر با سایر حوزه‌های دانش دچار می‌گردد. بدین منظور، اسپیرو و همکاران مدعی‌اند محیط‌های آموزشی طراحی شده بایستی بر پیچیدگی جهان واقعی و ساختارنایافتگی بسیاری از حوزه‌های دانش تأکید کند. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی کیفی اصول حاکم بر طراحی آموزشی مبتنی بر نظریه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی در ترکیب با راهبردهای داربست‌سازی در محیط‌های یادگیری مبتنی بر رایانه، انجام شد. روش تحقیق، تحلیل محتوای کیفی (استقرایی) بود. جامعة آماری پژوهش، شامل کلیة منابع و مقالات نمایه شده در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی (84 منبع) در بازه زمانی 2015-1991 مرتبط با نظریه‌های انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و داربست‌سازی بود. نمونه‌برداری از این منابع با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انجام گرفت و درنهایت الگوی طراحی آموزشی پیشنهادی مبتنی بر نظریه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی مبتنی بر 9 اصل در ترکیب با راهبردهای داربست‌سازی ارائه گردید. ازآنجایی‌که نظریه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی عموماً برای کسب دانش پیشرفته ارائه شده است، لذا از الگوی فوق می‌توان برای طراحی آموزش‌ها برای فراگیران در سطوح تحصیلی متوسطه به بالا استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Qualitative Study of the Principles of Educational Design Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory in Combination with Scaffolding Strategies

نویسندگان [English]

  • ABBAS TAGHIZADE 1
  • javad hatami 2
  • maryam ghasemi 1

1 phd student of tarbiat modares university in educational technology

2 Associate Professor of educational sciences in tarbiat modares university

چکیده [English]

Presenting complex domains of knowledge through traditional linear models of instruction, is problematic because as content areas becomes more complex, the domain of knowledge becomes more ill structured, non-uniform, and overlapping with other domains. For this, Spiro & et al. argue that learning environments should emphasize ‘‘the real-world complexity and ill-structuredness of many knowledge domains. The aim of this research was qualitative study of the principles of educational design based on cognitive flexibility theory in combination with scaffolding strategies in computer-based learning environments. Qualitative content analysis method was used in this research. The study population included all resources and related articles indexed in scientific databases during 1991-2015(84resource) related to the 2 theories of this study. A sample through Purposive sampling was selected and finally the proposed educational design model based on cognitive flexibility theory with 9 principles in combination with scaffolding strategies was presented. Since cognitive flexibility theory is generally presented for advanced knowledge acquirement, the proposed model can be used for educational design for learners at high school levels and upper.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • scaffolding
  • Constructivism approach
  • complex issues
  • cognitive flexibility theory
  • case-based learnin

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