نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری برنامه‌ریزی درسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی امور فرهنگی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

وجود تنوع نژادی، قومی، زبانی، فرهنگی، در کشورهای مختلف، نظام‌های تربیتی آن‌ها را متعهد نموده تا پاسخی درخور و شایسته به پدیده تنوع و تکثر جوامع خود بدهند و به نحوی شایسته در برنامة آموزشی مورد توجه واقع شوند. تربیت چندفرهنگی، رویکردی است که در پاسخ به تنوع و تکثر فرهنگی در یک جامعه و نظام تربیتی آن اتخاذ می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی چیستی و دلایل توجه به برنامه درسی چند فرهنگی و شناسایی مؤلفه‌های آن انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش کیفی و از نوع تحلیل محتوا بود. به‌منظور جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از همة منابع در دسترس در حوزة تعلیم‌وتربیت چندفرهنگی موجود در کتابخانه چاپی و الکترونیک (پایگاه‌های اطلاعات علمی معتبر) استفاده شد و با به‌کارگیری نظام مقوله‌ای قیاسی مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته‌های این پژوهش ضمن مشخص کردن ضرورت‌های تعلیم‌وتربیت چندفرهنگی (واقعیت‌های اجتماعی جامعة ایران، منزلت و کرامت انسانی و لزوم احترام به فرهنگ همة انسان‌ها، فقدان آموزش چندفرهنگی در نظام تربیتی کنونی، جهانی‌شدن و الزامات آموزشی ناشی از آن، ضرورت‌های تربیتِ معلمان آشنا به آموزش چندفرهنگی) نشان داد که توجه به برنامة درسی چندفرهنگی در آموزش، در شرایط کنونی جهانی و ملی یک ضرورت اجتناب‌ناپذیر است و در پایان مؤلفه‌های آموزش چندفرهنگی مورد شناسایی قرار گرفتند که به‌طور خلاصه می‌توان موارد زیر را اشاره نمود: آموزش ضد تبعیض نژادی، پذیرش تنوع و تکثر، همزیستی مسالمت‌آمیز با گروه‌های دیگر، رعایت عدالت تربیتی، انعطاف در برنامه‌های درسی، تنوع در استفاده از روش‌های تدریس، تنوع در استفاده از مواد آموزشی، حق حفظ زبان‌های اقلیت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The necessity of multicultural education, and the analysis of its components in Iranian educational system

نویسندگان [English]

  • esmail mostafazadeh 1
  • narges keshte aray 2
  • azar ghule zadeh 3

1 Assistant Professor, department of educational sciences, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, department of educational sciences, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department Of Management and Planning of Cultural Affairs, Isfahan(khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Existence of racial, ethnic, linguistic, cultural diversity, in different countries committed their educational systems to respond decently & worthly to plurality & diversity of their communities and are considered decently in educational curriculum. Multicultural education, is an approach that, is adopted in response to cultural diversity in a society and its educational system. This study was aimed to investigate quiddity and reasons for considering the multicultural curriculum and identify its components. Research method was Qualitative and from the type of content analysis. To collect information all available sources of multicultural education in print and electronic libraries (valid databases) were used & was analyzed using the inductive category. The findings of this research along with specifying the necessities of multicultural education (Social Realities in Iran Society- the necessity to respect the human dignity of all human beings- The lack of multicultural education in the current educational system- Globalization & training requirements resulting from it- the need for training familiar teacher with the educational system of Multicultural Education) showed that,attention to multicultural education curriculum, at global and national situation is an inevitable necessity. At the end of the study,the components of multicultural education were identified. In summary, the following were noted: Anti-racism education, acceptance of diversity & plurality, peaceful coexistence with other groups, regarding educational justice, flexibility in educational programs, variety in using of teaching methods, and so,variety in using of educational materials, to protect minority languages.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • multicultural education
  • diversity & plurality
  • multicultural education components

Amini, M. (2012). Explanation of multicultural curriculum and how to implement it systems curriculum planning of iran. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 7, No. 26, pp. 11- 32. [Persian]

Arslan, Hasan. (2009). Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs inTurkish Educational System. International Journal of Progressive Education, Volume 5 Number 2pp118-127

Askarian, M., (2006), the status of ethnic cultures in citizenship education, Journal of Research, Institute for Educational Research and Curriculum Development and Innovation, No. 17[Persian]

Banks, C. A. & Banks, J. A (1995).define multicultural education at:http://www.ncrel.org, last visit:2009/7/25

Banks, J. (2010). Center for Multicultural education. Available at: http://www.faculty.Washington.edu/jbanks.

Banks, J. A. & Banks, C. A. M., (2005). Multicultural education Issues and Perspectives (5th ed.), New York: John Wiley.

Banks, J. A. (2001). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. New York: John Wiley.

Chittom, Lynn-nore (2011). Teachers tips for creating a multicultural curriculum. Available at: http://www.Brighthub.com.

Fathy Vajargah, K. (2013). the identity of the new curriculum. Volume I. Tehran: Ayyzh[Persian]

Fardanesh Hashem. (2008). Classification models based on constructivist approaches to learning and teaching, Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9 (2): 5-21. [Persian]

Fernandez, M. (2010). The Responsibility for Multicultural education An Ethics of teaching and learning. Available at: http://www.Scu.edu/ethics.

Feyisa, D. & Kirstin, F. (2010). Raising the Achievement of Portuguese pupils in British schools: A case study of good practice. Available at: http://www.eric.ed.gov.

Gharibi J, Golestani H, Jafari E. Epistemological Foundations of Multicultural Education. Research in curriculum planning. 2016; 2 (20):1-15 URL: http://journals.khuisf.ac.ir/jsr-e/article-1-1806-fa.html

Gorski, Paul C. (2010). Multicultural education for equity in our schools: A Working definition. Available at: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/initial.html.

Green, P.E. (2009). Nonverbal differences in communication style between American Indian and Anglo elementary classrooms. American educational research Journal, 22, 101- 115.

Gundara, S. Jagdish(2002). Multiculturalism in Canada, Britain and Australia: TheRole of Intercultural Education. London Journal of Canadian Studies. VOLUME

 

Hawkins, K. (2010). Three imperatives: Valuing an anti-bias Curriculum, investing in early childhood education and promoting collaborative research. Available at: http://www.eprints.usq.edu.au.

Iraqiya Ali Raza (2009), integrated strategy towards a multicultural curriculum, interdisciplinary studies, human sciences, Volume II, Number 1[Persian]

Javadi, MJ (2000). multicultural education as an approach to education. Journal of Education. Vol 16, No. 3pp78-89[Persian]

Khosravi, M. (2008) Multicultural Education a requirement for the globalization of education, the Eighth Conference of the Association of Curriculum Studies, CD E, Page 401 to 427, Mazandaran University[Persian]

Kohne pushei, Syed Musleh and, kohne pushei,Syed Hamid (2009). A content analysis of the concept of identity sociology textbooks 1 and 2 (Literature and Human Sciences Secondary). Journal of Curriculum Studies, fourth, the 13, 14, 125-140. [Persian]

Lyvychy, Auer and others (1991). On the eve of the twenty-first century world. Translation of Ali Asadi, Tehran: Islamic Revolution and Training, Second Edition[Persian]

Mayring,P. (2000).Qualitative Content Analysis. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung /Forum: Qualitative Social Research [On-line Journal], 1 (2).Available at:http://qualitative-research.net/fqs/fqs-e/2-00inhalt-e.htm.

Mehr Mohammadi, Mahmoud (2009). "The education system is the lack of systematic planning strategy". Green Word, Issue 20, 21[Persian]

Mehr Mohammadi, Mahmoud, (2003). rethinking teaching - learning process and teacher training. Tehran: school publications[Persian]

Mehraby, A., Younesi, A. (2008). ethnic diversity and national unity in Iran: Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies. Journal of Intercultural Studies. Third Year, No. VII.pp54-67[Persian]

Moses, M. (1997). Multicultural education as fostering individual Autonomy, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Musa Pour, N (2008). Foundations of programming in secondary education, second, Tehran: Payam Andishe[Persian]

Parekh, B. (2oo8). The concept of multicultural education. In S. Modgil, G.K. Verma, K. Mallick, & C. Modgil (Eds.), Multicultural Education: The interminable debate (pp. 19-31). Philadelphia: Falmer.

Panahitavana S, marofi Y. Place of components of cultural identity in literature textbooks (the content analysis). Research in curriculum planning. 2016; 2 (23):89-101 URL: http://journals.khuisf.ac.ir/jsr-e/article-1-1513-fa.html

Qaderi, M. (2010). Critical theory of education: curriculum critique of modernity and late capitalism. Tehran, Yadvar[Persian] ە book, first published.

Rabrtson, Roland (2003). Globalization, translation of Kamal Pouladi, Tehran: Publication Sales

Rezanezhad Jolaey, N. (2010). Multicultural education is derived from the characteristics of the present age. First National Conference of 1404. Institute of Policy Science, Technology and Industry[Persian]

Rosado,Caleb(2008).What makes a school Multicultural?Available at: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/caleb/ multicultural.html.

Sadeqy, A. (2011). design Pattern curriculum for Elementary teacher education, multicultural Islamic Republic of Iran. PhD thesis. Allameh Tabatabai University. The doctor guides Mahmoud Mhrmhmdy[Persian]

Sadeqy, A. (2012). explained the need characteristics in a multi-cultural curriculum development, examine challenges and provide strategies, strategy, culture the Journal, Issue 17, p78[Persian]

Sajadi, SM (2005). Cultural pluralism, identity and education (explanation and evaluation). Journal of New Thoughts on Education, Volume 1, No. 1, Ss25-38. [Persian]

Salehi Amiri, Seyed Reza (2004). "Management of ethnic diversity in Iran," Ph.D. dissertation, State Management, Science and Research[Persian]

Sarkar Arani, MR (2012). Culture of learning and ethnographic research educational approach, Tehran: School Publication[Persian]

Shayegan, D., (2011). New enchantment identity Patchwork and thought-Mobile, translated by f walyany., Tehran: Publication farzan [Persian]

Silver, J. Galen, Alexander, William M., Lewis, Arthur J. Lewis (2009). Curriculum Planning for Better Teaching and Learning, Translation KhoyNejad, Gholamreza, Tehran: published beh nasher [Persian]

Soltani, M. (2009). multicultural education in teacher training institutions from the perspective of students in Sanandaj, Kurdistan University Master's Thesis[Persian]

Talebzade Noberyan, M., Fathi Vajargah, K. (2009). Special Topics Curriculum Development, Tehran: Nashr ayyzh[Persian]

Taqy Lu, F. (2007). Journal of Strategic Studies, ethnic diversity, multiculturalism and the politics of citizenship Pattern: The case of Iran NO (35)p113[Persian]

Taylor, C. (1994). Mlticlturalism; Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princton, New Jersey: Princton University Press

Yar Mohammadyan, MH (2013). Principles of Curriculum Development, Tehran: Nashre yadvareh ketab[Persian]