نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی کارایی آموزش مبتنی بر اثرات بار شناختی در درس علوم تجربی پایة سوم ابتدایی انجام شد. روش پژوهش، شبه آزمایشی و از نوع طرح دو گروهی با پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون بود. جامعة آماری این پژوهش شامل همة دانش‌آموزان دختر پایة سوم ابتدایی شهر کرمانشاه در سال تحصیلی 97-98 بود که دو کلاس به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس (39 نفر گروه آزمایش و 38 نفر گروه کنترل) انتخاب شدند که در گروه کنترل فراگیران به شیوة مرسوم درس‌های مذکور را یاد می‌گرفتند و در گروه آزمایشی، مطالب درسی بر اساس اثرات بار شناختی (اثر مثال حل شده، اثر تکمیل مسئله، اثر تقسیم توجه، اثر مجرای حسی، اثر افزونگی) به دانش‌آموزان ارائه شد. برای اندازه گیری میزان کارایی از آزمون معلم ساخته پیشرفت تحصیلی درس علوم تجربی و پرسشنامة خودگزارش‌دهی بار شناختی پاس و ون ‌مرینبوئر (Paas &Van Merriënboer,1993) استفاده شد. تأیید روایی ابزار معلم ساخته بر اساس روایی محتوایی و نظر متخصصین و پایایی آن به شیوة کودر ریچادسون21 انجام شد که در پیش‌آزمون عدد 91/0 و در پس‌آزمون عدد 72/0 به دست آمد. برای تحلیل داده‌های آماری از تحلیل کوواریانس چند راهه (MANCOVA)، نمره z و آزمون t مستقل به کمک نرم‌افزار SPSS22 بهره گرفته شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که بین دو روش آموزش مبتنی بر اثرات بار شناختی و روش سنتی از نظر میزان کارایی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (001/0>p)، به این معنا که میزان پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزانی که از طریق برنامة آموزشی مبتنی بر اثرات بار شناختی آموزش دیده بودند، بالاتر از دانش‌آموزان آموزش‌دیده با روش تدریس مرسوم و متداول بود. همچنین دانش‌آموزان گروه آزمایش بار شناختی کم‌تری از دانش‌آموزان گروه کنترل تجربه کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficiency of instruction based on the effects of cognitive load on the experimental sciences Case Study: experimental science of elementary third grade

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Abdi

Assistant Professor, Department of educational sciences, Payame Noor Universtiy, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This research was conducted with the aim of to investigate the efficiency of teaching based on the effects of cognitive load on the experimental science of elementary third grade. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized. The statistical population of this study included all female students of Kermanshah's 3rd elementary school in the academic year of 2017-2018. Two classes were selected using available sampling (Experimental N = 39 and Control N =38). In the control group, traditionally, students learned the lessons, and in the experimental and in the experimental group, students were presented content based on the cognitive load effects (Worked Example Effect and Completion Problem Effect, Attention Split Effect, Modality Effect, Redundancy effect). The efficiency of educational program was evaluated by a test of academic achievement in sciences and the one item Subjective Rating Scale (SRS) developed by Paas and Van Merrienboer (1993) was used to measure stu-dents’ cognitive load for both experimental and control group students. Confirmation of the validity of the academic achievement tool was based on the content validity and opinion of the experts and its reliability was done in the Richardson 21 method, which was 0.91 in the pre-test and 0.72 in the post-test. To analyze the statistical data, statistical descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), z score and independent t-test were used by SPSS software version 22.used. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the two methods of teaching based on the effects of cognitive load and traditional method in terms of efficiency (p <0.001), which means that the academic achievement level of students who through the educational program Trained cognitive effects were higher than those trained by conventional and conventional teaching methods. Also, students in the experimental group experienced a lower cognitive load of control group students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive-based learning
  • cognitive load
  • Efficiency
  • instruction based on cognitive load effects

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