نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌درسی، گروه روش‌ها و برنامه‌های آموزشی و درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار سنجش آموزش، گروه روش‌ها و برنامه‌های آموزشی و درسی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار برنامه درسی، گروه روش‌ها و برنامه‌های آموزشی و درسی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.30486/jsre.2019.551439.

چکیده

معلمان به‌عنوان مؤثرترین نیروی انسانی سازمان آموزش‌وپرورش در اجرای تغییرات محسوب می‌شوند. واکاوی در تجربه زیسته معلمان در تغییرات اخیر نظام ارزشیابی پیشرفت تحصیلی در دوره ابتدایی، زمینه‌ای مناسبی را برای ارتقای کیفیت نظام ارزشیابی پیشرفت تحصیلی، فراهم می‌نماید. پژوهش حاضر، با هدف واکاوی واکنش‌های معلمان نسبت به تغییرات نظام ارزشیابی پیشرفت تحصیلی دوره ابتدایی انجام شده است. مطالعه حاضر مبتنی بر رویکرد کیفی و روش پدیدارشناسی تفسیری، با حضور 14 مشارکت‌کنندة معلم زن‌ومرد در منطقه دو شهر تهران به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، با انجام مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته انجام شده و به روش (Diekelmann, Allen and Tanner, 1989) تحلیل گردید. یافته‌ها نشان داد معلمان در کل، نسبت به ماهیت برنامه ارزشیابی توصیفی، نظر مثبتی ندارند. از دیدگاه معلمان تغییرات نظام ارزشیابی باعث شده انتظارات سیستم آموزشی از آنها زیاد شود که این مسئله منجر به شکل‌گیری ذهنیت منفی در معلمان شده است. واکنش معلمان در مقابل تغییرات نظام ارزشیابی در سه مضمون اصلی «صلاحیت‌های حرفه‌ای»، «مشکلات سیستم آموزشی»، «انتظارات سیستم آموزشی» و نُه زیرمضمون، شناسایی و طبقه‌بندی گردید. به‌نظر می‌رسد، تمرکز و علاقه‌مندی به ایجاد تغییر بدون توجه به شرایط تغییر و به‌ویژه تناسب تغییر با بلوغ سازمانی، چالش‌های متعدد و متنوعی را برای نظام آموزشی به همراه داشته است که تداوم آن می‌تواند تبعات مخربی را برای تمامی ارکان نظام آموزشی به همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A phenomenological study to explore the experiences teacher̓s reactions toward the changes of evaluation system of educational achievement in primary schools

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shiva Goran 1
  • Keyvan Salehi 2
  • Mohammad Javadipour 3

1 MA student, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Teachers are considered as the most effective human resources and forces of the Education Organization in the implementation of the aimed changes. Analyzing the teachers’ lived experiences from the recent changes created in the evaluation system of the educational achievements in the primary schools has provided a proper background to promote the evaluation system of the educational achievements. This study aims at exploring and analyzing the teachers' reactions to the changes created in the evaluation system of the educational achievements in the primary schools. The present study has been conducted on the basics and principles of the qualitative approach of the interpretive phenomenology, with the participation of 14 male and female teachers teaching in the district two in Tehran based on the purposeful sampling and through using the semi-structured interviews and was finally analyzed based on the method of Diekelman et al. (1989). The results showed that teachers generally have no positive attitude towards the nature of the descriptive evaluation. From the teachers’ point of view, the changes in the evaluation system has created a situation in which the education system has employed a demanding and increasing expectations on the teachers leading to the formation of the negative opinions towards the teachers in the society. Teachers' perceptions and reactions to these changes in the evaluation system has been summarized in three main theme: "professional competencies", "problems in the education system” and "expectations of the education system" and also in nine sub theme. It seems that the focus and interest in making changes, regardless of the conditions of change, and especially the appropriateness of change with organizational maturity, have brought various and varied challenges to the educational system and its continuity can have devastating effects on all components of the educational system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Teachers’ Perception
  • descriptive evaluation
  • Responding to Changes
  • primary school
  • interpretive phenomenology

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