نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، اصفهان، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، اصفهان، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

10.30486/jsre.2019.551454.

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش تحلیل محتوای کتاب‌های فارسی خوانداری دوره ابتدایی (با تأکید بر داستان‌های آن) بر اساس مؤلفه‌های تفکر فلسفی در برنامه فلسفه برای کودکان بود. با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کمی و بر اساس چک‌لیستی از معیارهای تفکر فلسفی، شامل سه مفهوم (استدلال، مفهوم‌سازی و قضاوت) و دوازده زیرمؤلفه، داده‌ها جمع‌آوری شد. جامعة آماری شامل کتاب‌های فارسی خوانداری پایه‌های اول تا ششم ابتدایی چاپ سال 1395 بود. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از روش آمار توصیفی و آزمون خی‌دو استفاده شد. در همة کتاب‌های مورد تحلیل، درمجموع 578 مؤلفه مربوط به مفاهیم تفکر فلسفی شناسایی شد. نتایج نشان‌دهندة آن بود که در کتب درسی مورد بررسی مقولة استدلال بیشترین میزان فراوانی‌ها را به خود اختصاص داد و کمترین توجه به مقولة قضاوت شده بود. همچنین در بین کتب درسی مورد بررسی، کتاب‌های فارسی خوانداری پایه‌های پنجم و ششم بیشتر از سایر کتب به مؤلفه‌های تفکر فلسفی توجه داشت و کمترین میزان توجه به این مؤلفه‌ها مربوط به کتاب فارسی خوانداری پایه اول ابتدایی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Content Analysis of Farsi Elementary School Reading Textbooks Based on Philosophical Thought Criterions on Lippman's theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marziyeh Motamedi Mohammadabadi 1
  • Elham Azimi 2
  • Reza Ali Nowrozi 3

1 Ph.D. student of Curriculum field, Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology University of Isfahan, Iran.

2 Master of Educational Planning, Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Educational Sciences Department, University of Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Teaching philosophy has been proposed as an important program to train of thought in most countries in the world. The main objective of this study was to analyze the content of Persian elementary school reading books (with an emphasis on the stories) based on components of philosophical thought in the philosophy for children program. The data collection was performed by content analysis method based on a list of philosophical thinking measures including three concepts (reasoning, conceptualization and judgment) and twelve sub-components. The population consisted of reading books of first to sixth grade of Iran in 2016. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics were used. In analyzed books, a total of 578 components related to the concepts of philosophical thinking were identified. The results suggested that in the textbook under study the highest frequencies were allocated to the category of reasoning and judgment has obtained the lowest attention. Also among the textbooks under study the reading textbooks of fifth and sixth grade were more focused on the components of philosophical thinking and the lowest level was associated with the reading textbook of the first grade.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content Analysis
  • Philosophical thinking
  • elementary school
  • Philosophy for children
  • Textbook

Barkhordari, Z. (2015). Philosophy content production and children, Philosophy and Children, 9, 5-16 [In Persian].

Bashir Banaem, Y. (2013). To investigate the role of t Critical thinking in Strategic Thinking Excellence, Development of Human Resources Management and Support, 8(29), 173-205 [In Persian].

Burnett, A. J. (2015). Multi-cultural model of relational personhood and implementing philosophy for children (P4C): A refusal of the illusion of individualism in America, Master's Thesis, University of North Florida, Department of Philosophy.

Cam, Ph. (2010). Thinking Together, Mozhgan Rashtchi & Farzaneh Shahrtash, Tehran: Shahrtash [In Persian].

Chang Shook Cheong, A. (2005). Developing in young children the spirit of enquiry through the use of thinking stories. A Paper Presented at the First International Conference National Institute of Education, Nan Yang Technological University, Singapore.

Daniel M, Auriac E. (2008). Philosophy, critical thinking and philosophy for children, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(5): 415- 435.

Daniel M, Gagnon M. (2011). Developmental process of dialogical critical thinking in groups of pupils aged 4 to 12 years, Creative Education, 2(5): 418- 428.

De Marzio, D. M. (2011). What happens in philosophical texts: Matthew Lipman’s theory and practice of the philosophical texts as model. Childhood and Philosophy, 7(13).

Farzanfar, J., Ghaedi, Y., Naghibzadeh, M. & Mahmoodnia, A. (2010). In seeking independence, choice of texts for the program Philosophy for Children, Children's Literature Studies, 1(2), 125-155 [In Persian].

Farzanfar, J., & Ajam, A.A. (2016). Stories for “philosophy for kids” program based on critical thinking. Research in Curriculum Planning, 13(21): 106-118 [In Persian].

Gasparatou, R., & Kampeza, M. (2012). Introducing P4C in kindergarten in Greece. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 33(1): 72- 82.

Ghazavi, Kh. (2007). Review of philosophy for children program in third grade, based on the principles of curriculum, master's thesis, University of Teacher Education [In Persian].

Glazer, J., & Giorgis, C. (2005). Literature for young children. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Green, L. (2016). Facilitation is no mere technical skill: A case study of a small group of 'different' students. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 36(1): 63- 75.

Hosseini, A. (2004). The nature of creativity and how to training it, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi [In Persian].

Iravani, SH. & Mokhtadi, KH. (2011). The status of philosophical concepts in children's literature, Children's Literature Studies, Number 3, 2-8 [In Persian].

Janebzadeh Roudbaree, M., Ansarian, F., & Naderi, E. (2017). The investigation of the level of educational program of philosophy for children (p4c) in education activities on controlling internalized and externalized anger in male high school students in Tehran. Research in Curriculum Planning, 13(24): 144-158 [In Persian].

Love, R. (2016). The case for philosophy for children in the English primary curriculum. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 36(1): 8- 25.

Lyle, S., & Williams, J. (2012). Dialogic practice in primary schools: How primary head teachers plan to embed philosophy for children in to the whole school. Educational Studies, 38(1), 1-12.

Maleki, H. (2007). Curriculum guide to action, Mashhad: Payam Andisheh [In Persian].

Meerwaldt, D., Borromeo, F. R., & Nevers, P. (2013). Philosophizing with children in the course of solving modeling problems in a sixth grade mathematics classroom. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 34(1): 80- 92.

Moqimi Gask, A., Marashi, M. & Hashemi, S.J. (2013). A content analysis of primary school textbooks read and write from the perspective of considering the issue of teaching philosophy to children in line with the fundamental change in the education system, the fourth international congress of philosophy of education Iran, Mashhad, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad [In Persian].

Naji, S. (2009). New interpretation of Islamic learning and training, recovery component of Philosophy for Children, Culture, 69, 177-214 [In Persian].

Nowrozi, R. A., Derakhshandeh, N. (2007). Study of philosophical work with children from the perspective of students in Isfahan, Educational Innovations, 26, 59-78 [In Persian].

Parirokh, M., Parirokh, Z. & Majdi, Z. (2010). Footprints philosophical concepts in children's literature: research on identifying factors associated with philosophical thinking education, Library Studies and Information Science (Journal of Education and Psychology), 16(4), 57-80 [In Persian].

Parsa, M. (2003). Foundations of Psychology, second edition, Tehran: sokhan [In Persian].

Philip, A., & Cross, M. (2016). Tradition and Modernization: Siting Philosophy for Children within the African Outlook. Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, 47(1): 15-30

Salehi Omran, E., & Chaharbashlo, H. (2010). Content analysis of primary school textbooks based on the components of creativity as a way of improving students' creativity, The third national conference on creativity and innovation management of Iran, Tehran [In Persian].

Sarmad, Z., Bazargan, A. & Hejazi, E. (1999). Methods of Research in Behavioral Sciences, Tehran: Agah [In Persian].

Seif, A.K. (2013). Assessment of learning processes and products: old and new methods, Tehran: Dowran [In Persian].

Smith, P. & Gordon, H. (1992). Logical thinking, methods of education. Ali Shariatmadari, Tehran: samt [In Persian].

Smith, P. (2003). Philosophical mindset in educational management, Mohammadreza Behrangi, Tehran: Kamal tarbiat [In Persian].

Sohrabi, R. (2011). Comparison of Iranian myths, Iranian story books and external story books, based on the components of philosophical thought, Shiraz, Master's thesis, University of Shiraz [In Persian].

Srivastava, R., & Joshi, S. (2014). Relationship between self-concept and self-esteem in adolescents. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(2).

Stephan, M., & Alan, T. (2011). Benefits of collaborative philosophical inquiry in school, Centre for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Curtin University.

Valitalo, R., Juuso, H., & Sutinen, A. (2016). Philosophy for children as an educational

 

practice. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35(1): 79- 95.

Vansieleghem, N., & Kennedy, D. (2011). What is philosophy for children, what is philosophy with children after Matthew Lipman. Philosophy of Education, 45(2): 171- 182.

Zarghami, S. (2008). A comparative study of philosophy and logic of integration and differentiation in theoretical high school, Ministry of Education, Organization of research and educational renewal [In Persian].