نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی برنامه درسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف طراحی برنامه درسی تفکر مستقل برای دانش‌آموزان دورۀ متوسطه انجام شده است. رویکرد پژوهش، کیفی و از نوع روش اسنادی بود که با استفاده از فن تحلیل محتوا، تحلیل گردید. لذا با مطالعه اسناد پژوهی و نمونه پژوهش‌های مرتبط، بخش‌های مربوط به تفکر مستقل در این پژوهش‌ها استخراج گردید. داده‌ها به شیوة کدگذاری بر اساس الگوی تایلر بر مبنای چهار عنصر هدف (شناختی، عاطفی و روانی حرکتی)، محتوا (انتخاب و سازمان‌دهی)، روش و ارزشیابی است. نتایج نشان داد در بخش «هدف» ویژگی‌ها شامل: آزادی بیان، برخورداری از حق انتخاب، بحث گروهی، یادگیری مشارکتی، تبادل اجتماعی، رشد ذهنی، پرورش عقلانیت است. درزمینۀ «محتوا» ویژگی‌ها شامل: یاددادن نحوۀ تفکر، یاددادن پیروی آگاهانه از الگوها، آموزش شرکت در بحث گروهی، یادگیری انجام فعالیت‌های مستقل، یادگیری اظهارنظر آزاد، یاددادن برخورداری از حق انتخاب، نگرش آگاهانه به مسائل است. در بخش «روش تدریس» ویژگی‌ها شامل: استفاده از روش بحث گروهی، سقراطی، استفاده از بازی‌های فکری و کلامی، ارائه تمرینات مستقل، معلم به‌عنوان تسهیلگر و همکار است. درزمینۀ «ارزشیابی» ویژگی‌ها شامل: استفاده از ابزارهای خودارزیابی، توجه به ارزشیابی مستمر و تکوینی، فراهم آوردن امکان بازخورد مناسب و به‌موقع، توجه به مشارکتی بودن فعالیت‌های دانش‌آموزان، توجه به اشکال مختلف ارزشیابی است. استفاده از نتایج این پژوهش می‌تواند در آیندۀ نوجوانان و جوانانی با تفکرات مستقل در راستای کاهش آسیب‌ها و ناهنجاری‌های اجتماعی و پایبندی به اعتقادات دینی و فرهنگی خویش تربیت کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing an Independent Thinking Curriculum for High School Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • jamal moammer hour 1
  • marziye dehghani 2
  • Elahe Hejazi 3
  • Keyvan Salehi 2

1 PhD student in curriculum, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to design an independent thinking curriculum for high school students. The research method is qualitative and in the form of content analysis. Therefore, by studying the research documents and samples of related researches, the sections related to independent thinking in these researches were extracted. Data is coded based ‌on Tyler's model based on four elements; objective (cognitive, emotional, and ‌psychological), content (selection and organization), methodology and ‌evaluation. ‌ ‌ The results showed that in the “goal” section the features included: freedom of expression, freedom of choice, group discussion, participatory learning, social exchange, mental development, nurturing of rationality. In the field of "content", the features include: learning how to think, learning to abide by patterns, learning to engage in group discussion, learning to do independent activities, learning to make free speech, learning to have a choice, conscious attitude to Stuff. The "Teaching Method" section features: using group discussion, Socratic Method, using intellectual and verbal games, providing independent exercises, teacher as facilitator and colleague. In the field of “evaluation”, the features include: the use of self-assessment tools, attention to continuous and formative evaluation, providing timely and appropriate feedback, attention to the involvement of students' activities, attention to various forms of evaluation. Using the results of this research can educate adolescents and young people in the future with independent thinking in order to reduce social harms and anomalies and adhere to their religious and cultural beliefs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • documents
  • Curriculum
  • high school students
  • Independent Thinking
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