نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش روایتی تاریخی از مسیر زندگی حرفه‌ای و اندیشه‌های رالف وینفرد تایلر در حوزة مطالعاتی برنامة درسی است. تایلر در دورانی مسیر تحقیقاتی خویش را آغاز کرد که نقش‌آفرینی بسیاری از مربیان و معلمان در مدارس و کلاس‌های درس مبتنی بر باورهای عامیانه بود. او توانست اندیشه‌های فلسفی مربیانی چون هربارت و دیویی را به دغدغه‌های عملی متخصصانی نظیر ثورندایک، چارترز و بابیت ربط دهد و گسست میان نظریه و عمل برنامة درسی را کاهش دهد. این پژوهش تاریخی به روش استنادی و با تحلیل مجموعه‌ای از اطلاعات تاریخی مغفول، به واکاوی تجارب تحقیقاتی و زمینه‌های فکری تایلر پرداخته و برخی از باورهای او را که برای فهم عمیق‌تر الگوی موسوم به خطی-منطقی تایلر لازم‌اند تبیین کرده است. از جملة این باورها می‌توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد: 1) آموزش انتزاعی عملیات ریاضی به اندازة آموزش جزءبه‌جزء آنها مؤثر است؛ 2) برای ایجاد انگیزش درونی در دانش‌آموزان باید محتوای درس را به فعالیت‌های روزانه زندگی پیوند داد؛ 3) اجرای صحیح روش‌ حل مسئلة دیویی و روش پروژة کیلپاتریک مستلزم این است که روش مناسبی برای ارزشیابی یادگیری دانش‌آموزان طراحی کرد؛ 4) در جامعة مردم‌سالار دشوارترین وظیفه تبدیل کردن دانش‌آموزان به شهروندان مسئولیت‌پذیر است؛ 5) ارزشیابی تکوینی، نه برای قضاوت دربارة یادگیری دانش‌آموز یا عملکرد معلم، بلکه برای قضاوت دربارة کارآمدی و اثربخشی برنامة درسی است؛ 6) فرایند برنامه‌ریزی درسی خطی نیست؛ و 7) هدف ارزشیابی، بهبود آموزش و هماهنگی اثربخش‌تر معلمان است. در این پژوهش تاریخی، همچنین رویکرد مشارکتی و واقع‌گرایانة تایلر و تلاش‌های وی برای کاهش شکاف میان نظریه و عمل برنامة درسی برجسته شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Curious Case of Ralph Tyler: A Historical Narrative of a Lifelong Effort for the Consolidation of Curriculum Theory and Practice

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Ahmad Madani

Assistant Professor of Educational Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This inquiry is a historical narrative of Ralph Tyler’s career and his ideas in the field of curriculum studies. Tyler begin his research and academic career in an era in which many educators and teachers’ practice was based on unexamined and non-sophisticated beliefs. Hi managed to bridge between philosophical thoughts of great educators like Dewey and Herbart and practical concerns of experts like Thorndike, Charters and Bobbitt and successfully reduced his perceived gap between curriculum theory and practice. In this historical narrative, some of the Tyler’s insightful research findings, reflective beliefs, and areas of deliberation are explored, which could play a significant role in deeper understanding of his so-called rational-linear model. Some of the most noteworthy conclusions are mentioned as below: abstract instruction of mathematical operations is as effective as atomistic or behavioristic instruction of these operations; developing an authentic evaluation method is a very important task for true implementation of Dewey’s problem solving and Kilpatrick’s project method; formative evaluation is not for judging about student learning or teacher performance, but it’s for apprising the effectiveness of curriculum; the process of curriculum planning is not absolutely linear; and the purpose of evaluation is improving instruction and teachers’ coordination. In this historical inquiry Tyler’s participatory and realistic approach and his curiosity and efforts for reducing the gap between curriculum theory and practice are highlighted.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ralph Tyler
  • Curriculum Theory and Practice
  • education
  • Eight-Year Study
Aikin, Wilford. M. (1942). Adventure in American Education: The Story of the Eight-Year Study with Conclusions and Recommendations. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Alkan, Sinem. Hizli & Priestley, Mark. (2019). Teacher Mediation of Curriculum Making: The Role of Reflexivity. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 51 (5): 737-754.
Antonelli, George. A. (1972). Ralph W. Tyler: The Man and His Work. Peabody Journal of Education, 50 (1): 68-74.
Bobbitt, Franklin. (1922). Curriculum-Making in Los Angeles. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago.
Bone, Elisa. K. & Ross, Pauline. M. (2019). Rational Curriculum Processes: Revising Learning Outcomes is Essential yet Insufficient for a twenty first Century Science Curriculum. Studies in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2019.1637845.
Cremin, Lawrence. A. (1959). John Dewey and the Progressive-Education Movement, 1915-1952. The School Review (Dewey Centennial Issue), 67 (2): 160-173.
Davis, O. L. (2013). Historical Inquiry: Telling Real Stories. In: Edmund C Short, Forms of Curriculum Inquiry. Translated by: M. Mehrmohammadi & et al. Tehtan: Samt. (Text in Persian).
Deng, Zongyi. (2018). Contemporary Curriculum Theorizing: Crisis and Resolution. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 50 (6): 691-710.
Doll, Ronald. C. (1992). Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process (Eighth Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
DuBay, William. H. (2006). The Classic Readability Studies. Costa Mesa: Impact Information.
Eisner, Elliot. (2012). Ralph Winifred Tyler (1902-1994). In: Joy. A. Palmer. Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education. Tehran: Samt. (Text in Persian).
Gall, M., Borg, W., & Gall, J. (2004). Educational Research: An Introduction. (Second Volume). Translated by: A. R. Nasr et al. Tehran: Samt. (Text in Persian).
Garcia-Huidobro, Juan. Cristobal. (2017). Addressing the Crisis in Curriculum Studies: Curriculum Integration that Bridges Issues of Identity and Knowledge. The Curriculum Journal, 29 (1): 25-42.
Ghaderi, M. (2009). Pathways for Understanding Curriculum. Tehran: Yadvare Ketab. (Text in Persian).
Ghaderi, M. (2012). Theory and Practice in Curriculum Studies. Tehran: AvayeNoor. (Text in Persian).
Hazlett, Stephen. J. (1979). Conceptions of Curriculum History. Curriculum Inquiry, 9 (2): 129-135.
Hergenhahan, B. R., & Henley, Tracy. B. (2014). An Introduction to the History of
Psychology (Seventh Edition). Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Ingman, Benjamin. C. & McConnell Moroye, Christy. (2019). Experience-Based Objectives. Educational Studies,
Kelly, A. V. (2004). The Curriculum: Theory and Practice (Fourth Edition). London: Sage Publications.
Khosravi, RahmatAllah. (2015). Ralph Tyler. Iranian Encyclopedia of Curriculum. Available at: www.daneshnamehicsa.ir.
Kilpatrick, William. Heard. (1918). The Project Method: The Use of the Purposeful Act in the Educative Process. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Kliebard, Herbert. M. (1968). Curricular Objectives and Evaluation: A Reassessment. The High School Journal, 51 (6): 241-247.
Kliebard, Herbert. M. (1970). The Tyler Rationale. The School Review, 78 (2): 259-272.
Kliebard, Herbert. M. (1977). Curriculum Theory: Give Me a "For Instance". Curriculum Inquiry, 6 (4): 257-269.
Kliebard, Herbert. M. (1995). The Tyler Rationale revisited. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 27 (1): 81-88.
Kliebard, Herbert. M. (2004). The Struggle for American Curriculum 1893-1958 (Third Edition). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Kelibard, H. (2004). Reappraisal: The Tyler Rational. In: Sharif, M. (2010). Curriculum: Discourse of Theory, Research and Practice (Social Efficiency Curriculum). Esfahan: Jahad. (Text in Persian).
Louis, Rubin. (1994a). The Ralph Tyler Legacy: In Memoriam, Ralph Tyler (1902-1994). Educational Researcher, 23 (5): 32-33.
Louis, Rubin. (1994b). Ralph W. Tyler: A Remembrance. The Phi Delta Kappan, 75 (10): 784-785, 789.
Maleki, H. (2008). Curriculum Development: Practice Guide. Tehran: Nashr Payam Andishe. (Text in Persian).
Marzooghi, R. (2016). Science Paradigmes and Curriculum Theories.Tehran: Avaye Noor. (Text in Persian).
Mazbouhi, Saeid., Hajitabar Firouzjaee, Mohsen., Daneshmand, Badrosadat. (2018). Key Curriculum Questions with a Focus on Schwab's View. Research in Curriculum Planning, 16 (37): 18-45.
Mehrmohammadi, M. (2002). Curriculum: Theories, Approches and Perspectives. Mashhad: BehNashr.
McNeil, John. D. (2009). Contemporary Curriculum in Thought and Action (Seventh Edition). India: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ornstein, Allan. C., & Hunkins, Francis. P. (2018). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues (Seventh Edition). London: Pearson.
Ornstein, Allan. C., & Hunkins, Francis. P. (2004). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues (Fourth Edition). Boston: Pearson.
Pinar, W., Reynolds, W. Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. (2004). Undrestanding Curriculum as Historical Text: Creation and Transformation (The Progressive Reform Movement). In: Sharif, M. (2010). Curriculum: Discourse of Theory, Research and Practice (Progressive Curriculum). Esfahan: Jahad. (Text in Persian).
Pinar, W., Reynolds, W. Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. (2004). Undrestanding Curriculum as Historical Text: Creation and Transformation. In: Sharif, M. (2010). Curriculum: Discourse of Theory, Research and Practice (Social Efficiency Curriculum). Esfahan: Jahad. (Text in Persian).
Pring, Richard. (2018). Philosophical Debates on Curriculum, Inequalities and Social Justice. Oxford Review of Education, 44 (1): 6-18.
Ryan, Kevin., Johnston, John., & Newman, Katherine. (1977). Ralph Tyler: Education's Mr. Fix-It. The Phi Delta Kappan, 58 (7): 540-543.
Saylor, J. G., Alexander, W. M., & Lewis, Arthur. J. (2001). Curriculum planning for better Teaching and Learning. Tehran: Samt & BehNashr. (Text in Persian).
Schiro, M. S. (2014). Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Translated by: M. F. Farahani & R. Rafati. Tehran: Aeej.
Sharif, M. (2010). Curriculum: Discourse of Theory, Research and Practice (Social Efficiency Curriculum). Esfahan: Jahad. (Text in Persian).
Sharifian, F. (2012). Typology of Curriculum Theories. Isfahan: Amokhte. (Text in Persian).
Staflebeam, D. L. (2014). Introduction to Evaluation Models. Translated by: G. R. Yadegarzadeh & et al. Tehran: Yadvare Ketab. (Text in Persian).
Taba, Hilda. (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. Chicago: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Tanner, Laurel. N. (1988). The Path Not Taken: Dewey's Model of Inquiry. Curriculum Inquiry, 18 (4): 471-479.
Tanner, Laurel. (1997). Dewey’s Laboratory School: Lessons for Today. Chicago: Teachers College Press.
Tanner, Daniel., & Tanner, Laurel. (2007). Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice (Fourth Edition). New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1932). Ability to Use Scientific Method. Educational Research Bulletin, 11 (1): 1-9.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1940b). The Place of Evaluation in Modern Education. The Elementary School Journal, 41 (1): 19-27.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1940a). Remembering Boyd Bode. Curriculum Theory Network, 5 )1): 61-62.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1941a). Educational Adjustments Necessitated by Changing Ideological Concepts. The Elementary School Journal, 42 (1): 17-26.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1941c). Workshops at the University of Chicago. NASSP Bulletin, 25 (95): 45-52.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1944). Evaluation as a Function of Supervision. The Elementary School Journal, 44 (5): 264-273.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1948a). The Need for a More Comprehensive Formulation of Theory of Learning a Second Language. The Modern Language Journal, 32 (8): 559-567.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1948b). Educability and the Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 49 (4): 200-212.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1951). Evolving a Functional Curriculum. The American Journal of Nursing, 51, (12): 736-738.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1957). The Curriculum-Then and Now. The Elementary School Journal, 57 (7): 364-374.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1960a). Policies and Strategy for Strengthening the Curriculum. NASSP Bulletin, 44 (253): 76-85.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1960b). Purposes for Our Schools. NASSP Bulletin, 44 (253): 76-85.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1962). Specific Contributions of Research to Education. Theory into Practice, 1 (2): 75-80.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1981). Curriculum Development Since 1900. Educational Leadership, 38 (8): 598-601.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1982). Comment. Educational Researcher, 11 (10): 9-11.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1987a). Education Reforms. The Phi Delta Kappan, 69 (No): 277-280.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1987b). Ralph W. Tyler: Education, Curriculum Development and Evaluation. An Oral History Conducted 1985-1987 by Malca Chall, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1987c). The Five Most Significant Curriculum Events in the Twentieth Century. Educational Leadership, 44 (4): 36-38.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (1992). Improving school effectiveness. Amherst: University of Massachusetts.
Tyler, Ralph. W. (2008). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Translated by: AliTaqi PoorZahir. Tehran: Agah. (In Pearsion).
Tyrrel, R. (1974). Comment: An Appraisal of the Tyler Rational. In: Sharif, M. (1389). Curriculum: Discourse of Theory, Research and Practice (Social Efficiency Curriculum). Esfahan: Jahad. (Text in Persian).
Walker, Decker. F. (2003). Fundamentals of Curriculum: Passion and Professionalism (Second Edition). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Wraga, William. G. (1999). Extracting Sun-Beams out of Cucumbers: The Retreat from Practice in Reconceptualized Curriculum Studies. Educational Researcher, 28 (1): 4-13.
Yaghobi, Salam., Hosseinikahe, Ali., Ghaderi, Mostafa., Kian, Marjan. (2020). Exploration of the Iranian Curricularists Understanding of Reconceptualization Curriculum Components paradigm. Research in Curriculum Planning, 16 (37): 18-45.
Zais, Robert. S. (1976). Curriculum: Principles and Foundations. New Work: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, Inc.