نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم تربیتی، گرایش برنامه‌ریزی درسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران جنوب، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی درسی دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران جنوب، تهران، ایران.

3 استاد دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان متخصص پزشکی اجتماعی، کرمان، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضرف بررسی اهمیت، الگوها و روش‌های آموزش و توانمندسازی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی برای مقابله با آسیب‌های اجتماعی بود که با استفاده از رویکرد پژوهش کیفی و روش سنتزپژوهی انجام شده است. حوزۀ پژوهش، مقالات داخلی از سال 1378 تا 1398 شمسی، با کلیدواژه‌های توانمندسازی کودکان، اهمیت آموزش‌های پیش‌دبستانی، آسیب‌های اجتماعی، برنامه درسی پیش‌دبستان، مهارت‌های زندگی و مهارت‌های اجتماعی و مقالات خارجی از سال 1999 تا 2019 میلادی با همان کلیدواژه‌ها، به تعداد 94 منبع را شامل می‌گردد که پس از اعمال غربالگری 71 مورد به‌عنوان نمونه پژوهش با استفاده از روش هدفمند انتخاب شدند. نتایج استخراج شده نشان می‌دهد که ضرورت توانمندسازی کودکان برای مقابله با آسیب‌های اجتماعی را می‌توان در 10 طبقه دسته‌بندی نمود: رشد عاطفی و شخصیتی و افزایش سلامت روانی، کاهش اختلالات رفتاری و افزایش سازگاری فردی و اجتماعی، رشد اعتمادبه‌نفس و استقلال فردی، افزایش توانمندی‌ها و خلاقیت‌های فردی، رشد مهارت‌های فردی، ارتباطی و اجتماعی، ضرورت‌های اخلاقی و تربیتی، توسعۀ خود مراقبتی کودکان، رشد مهارت‌های زندگی و روابط اجتماعی و افزایش مشارکت‌پذیری، ضرورت‌های آموزشی و فرهنگی و ضرورت‌های اقتصادی. در خصوص الگوها و روش‌های توانمندسازی فردی و شخصیتی، دو الگوی کلی توسط صاحب‌نظران "افزایش توانمندی فردی و شخصیتی کودکان" و "ارتقای مهارت‌های زندگی و مهارت‌های اجتماعی" پیشنهاد شده است که برای الگوی اول روش‌های "آموزش و تقویت خودآگاهی و شناخت خود، توانمندسازی روان‌شناختی کودکان و آموزش باورها و ارزش‌های دینی" و برای الگوی دوم روش‌های "آموزش مهارت‌های زندگی و آموزش مهارت‌های اجتماعی" مطرح شده است.
درخصوص الگوهاو روش های توانمندسازی فردی وشخصیتی، دوالگوی کلی توسط صاحبنظران" افزایش توانمندی فردی و شخصیتی کودکان" و " ارتقای مهارت های زندگی و مهارت های اجتماعی" پیشنهاد شده است که برای الگوی اول روش های "آموزش و تقویت خودآگاهی و شناخت خود، توانمندسازی روانشناختی کودکان و آموزش باورها و ارزش های دینی" وبرای الگوی دوم روش های "آموزش مهارتهای زندگی وآموزش مهارت های اجتماعی" مطرح شده است

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on preschool children empowerment patterns and methods importance against social deviances

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahshid Mehrjoo 1
  • Mohamad Nouriyan 2
  • Nozar Nakaee 3
  • Darush noroozi 4

1 PhD Student of Educational Sciences, Curriculum Development, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Management and Curriculum Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor of Kerman Medical Sciences University, Kerman, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Educational Technology Department, Allame Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance, patterns and methods of educating and empowering preschool children against social deviances, which has been done using a qualitative research approach and synthesis research method. The research field includes 94 internal articles from 1999 to 2019 with keywords such as Children's Empowerment, Preschool Education Importance, Injuries and Social Deviations, Preschool Curriculum, Life Skills and Social Skills, and 94 foreign articles from 1999 to 2019 which, after screening, 71 cases were selected as a research sample using purposive method. The results show that the necessity to empower children against social deviances can be classified into 10 categories: Emotional and personality development and mental health increasing, behavioral disorders reduction and individual and social adjustment increasing, self-confidence and individual independence increasing, individual abilities and creativity growth, individual, communication and social skills development, moral and educational necessity, development Child self-care, life skills and social relationships development and increase participation, educational and cultural necessities and economic necessities. Regarding the models and methods of individual and personality empowerment, two general models have been proposed by theorists: "children's personal and personality empowerment increasing " and " life skills and social skills improvement ". for the first model "training and strengthening self-awareness and self-knowing" "Psychological children empowerment and teaching religious beliefs and values" and for the second model, methods of "teaching life skills and teaching social skills" have been proposed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Empowerment patterns and methods
  • Social deviances
  • Curriculum
  • preschool
Abdi, Beheshte et al. (2008) Social Skills and Behavior Problems of Preschool Children in Iran, Journal of Developmental Psychology, No. 16 [Persian].
Abdollahi, Mohammad (2011), Social Damage and Its Evolution in Iran, Vol. 1, Tehran: Agaah Publications [Persian].
Adams, M, (2016), Teaching for diversity and social Justice, Third edition, New York and London, Routledge, Volume 54, No. 11Ebrahi
Aghabakhshi H, Sedighi B, Eskandari M. A surveyon the effective factors of the youths’ tendency towardsindustrial drugs abuse. Social Res 2009; 2: 71-87. [Persian].
Akbarnejad, Gholamreza (2017) The Role of Education in Controlling Social Injuries among Students, Psychological Studies and Educational Sciences Quarterly Journal, No. 24 [Persian].
Alexander (2015) Families and Schools Together, Inc. All rights reserved. Further reproduction is prohibited without prior written consent. FAST®, FASTWORKS® and Families and Schools Together®
AlHosseini, Fereshteh & Mehrmohammadi, Mahmoud (2011), Transformation of Curriculum Institutional Understanding: From Operational to Practical, Iranian Journal of Curriculum Studies, 6th Year, No. 22, Fall 2011,58-29 [Persian].
Alipour Soleimani, Hossein (2014) Preschool Education from Theory to Practice, Master Thesis in Educational Sciences, Arak Azad University [Persian].
Armand, Mohammad et al. (2013) Preschool Education in South Korea, Preschool Education Development Journal, No. 18 [Persian].
Asadi, Mohammad (2016) Synthesis Research of Patterns, Educational Planning Studies Journal, Mazandaran University, Volume 5, Number 9 [Persian].
Bloom, Benjamin et al (2016) The Future of Educational Research in Preschool Education, Journal of Personal and Social Behavior, University of Princeton Volume 42, No. 8
Blutin Joseph, Pamela (2000), Curriculum Cultures, Translator: Mehrmohammadi, Mahmoud (2010), 2nd Edition, Samt Publications
Botvin, G. J. & Griffin, K. W. (2012). Life skills training as a primary prevention approach for adolescents drug abuse and other problem behaviors. The International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4, 41-47.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W. & Nichols, T. D. (2006). Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school based prevention approach. Prevention Science.7, 403-408.
Bozgar et al. (2012 ) The Role of Preschool Education in Violence Prevention, Journal of
 
Violence and Social Injury, Johns Hopkins University, Volume 13, No 31
Caroline Gooden(2013) The Importance of Communication Skills, Journal of Violence and Social Injury, Johns Hopkins University, Volume 14, No 2 in Young Children. Human Development Institute • University of Kentucky. SUMMER 2013
Chalmers, I., Hedges, L., & Cooper, H. (2002) A brief history of research synthesis. Evaluation and Health Professionals, 25, 12-37.
Ebrahimi Ghavam, Soghra (2010) A Study and Analysis of Preschool Education Program Topics in Iran and Other Countries, Educational Psychology Quarterly Journal, No. 185 [Persian].
Ebrahimi Ghavam, Soghra et al. (2015) Detailed Study of Traffic Safety Education Program for Preschool Children in Iran and Australia, Traffic Management Studies, No. 39 [Persian].
Ebrahimi, Ali Akbar (2013) The Effectiveness of Preschool Immunization Program against Addictive Substances, Rehabilitation Quarterly, No. 55 [Persian].
Ebrahimi, Amrollah et al. (2003) Preschool in the social development of primary school students, Science and Technology Research Journal, No. 1 [Persian].
Emami Al-Agha, Shirin (2015) The Role of Preschool Education in Solving Behavioral Disorders in Children, Children Empowerment Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 3 [Persian].
Fazli, Rokhsareh (2015) Why Preschool Education is Important, Journal of Preschool Education [Persian].
Fazli, Rokhsareh (2017) The Relationship between Child Fate and Quality of Preschool Education, Payvand Magazine, No. 449 [Persian].
Fooladi, Mohammad (2005) Factors of Social Injuries and Ways to Prevent It in Children, Journal of Knowledge, No. 91 [Persian].
George S., Morrison (2007) Early Childhood Education Today. University of North Texas, Vol. 23, No. 121
Ghadrianpour, Samane (2015) Sexual Education of Children in Preschool, Preschool Education Development Quarterly Journal, No. 37 [Persian].
Ghasemtabar, N. (2016). Design and validation of the curriculum model of Iranian preschool curriculum. Phd dissertation, Unpublished, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University. [Persian]
Giddens, Anthony & W. Sutton, Philip, Giddens Sociology (2010), Sixth edition, (revised and updated by Philip W. Sutton), Polity press, London, England
Gouley, K. G., Brotman, L. M., Huang. K. Y., & Shrout, K. E. (2015). Construct validation of the social competence scale in preschool-age children, Social Development, 17, 380-398.
Hafeznia, Mohammad et al. (2014) Study of the effectiveness of life skills on reducing social harms, Journal of Human Management Development, No. 32 [Persian].
Hanewinkel. R. A. & Bhauer, M. (2004). Fifteen month Follow- up results of a school –based life skills approach to smoking prevention. Health education Research, 19,745-137.
Hashemi, Ahmad et al. (2017) Strategies for empowering children in preschool [Persian].
Hassanoud, Baqer (2015) The Effect of Preschool Education on the Development of Social Skills of Preschool Children, Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology, No. 37 [Persian].
Hawkins, Arthur (2013) Preschool Training in Prevention of Violence, Journal of Violence Prevention Studies, Volume 2, Number 2
Hedayati, Mostafa (2016) The Effect of Thought Stories on the Development of Social Skills of Preschool Children, Philosophy and Child Quarterly, No. 13 [Persian].
Hosseini, S.R., (2011), A Glance at Crime Statistics in Iran, Social Pathologies and Its Evolution in Iran, Proceedings of the First National Conference on Social Pathologies in Iran, vol. 1, Iran Sociology Society [Persian].
Hosseini, Shahla, Heydari, Mohammad Hossein, Sa’adatmand, Zohreh (2019), Research in Curriculum Planning: Vol 16, No 35(continues 62), fall 2019,82-105 [Persian]
Jafari, Alireza (2014) The effect of educational games on social development of preschool children [Persian].
Jaleh, Refa (2008) Life Skills Training in the Prevention of Social Injuries, New Finding Quarterly in Educational Management, No. 2 [Persian].
Javadi, Farzane et al. (2016) The effect of life skills training and social adjustment, Green Innovation Quarterly, No. 37-38 [Persian].
Johnny, Nicole et al. (2016), Increasing Empowerment and Individual Creativity in Children, Journal of Psychological Research, University of Ohio, Volume 3, Issue 1
Jonathan Becker (2016), The Relationship between Children 's Personal, Communication and Social Skills Development on Their Psychological Ability, Journal of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy Studies, Volume 23, Issue 19
Kakabraei, Keyvan (2019) The effectiveness of problem solving training on behavioral problems of preschool children [Persian].
Karami Noori, Reza & Moradi, Alireza, Basics of Preschool Education, (2015) Journal of Growth, Tehran, Year 19, No. 12, January [Persian].
Karimzade, Mansoureh (2017) The Role of Preschool Education in the Future of Children, Preschool Children Development Association Quarterly Journal, Volume 1, Number 3 [Persian].
Kelly, Michael P., Barker, Marry, (2016) Why is changing health-related behavior so difficult?, public health 136 (2016 ) 109-116
Mahmoudi, Mansour (2016) Preschool Education and Social Behavior, Preschool Education Development Journal, No. 30 [Persian].
Malagashi, Loris et al. (2015), Determinants of Emotional and Personality Growth and Increasing Children's Mental Health, Mental Health Quarterly, Volume 16, Number 2
Maleki, Hassan (2001) Social Dimension, Curriculum and Teacher Role, Teacher Development Journal, No. 163 [Persian].
Maleki, Hassan (2019), Preliminaries of Curriculum Planning, Tehran: Sam samf Publications[Persian].
Maleki, Hassan, (2009), Curriculum planning (action guide). Tehran: School Publications [Persian].
Mansoorian, Mohammadreza (2017) A Study of the Role of Preschool Centers in the Comprehensive Development of Children, Journal of Psychology, Gorgan Branch of Azad University, Volume 3, Number 1 [Persian].
Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad (2015), Methodology of Curriculum Studies, Position Publication [Persian].
Mir Mohammadi, Hossein (2016) The Concept of Preschool Education in Iran, Curriculum Planning Approaches Journal, No. 2 [Persian].
Mirzaei, Amir Hamze (2017) Preschool Need Today Supported Tomorrow Preschool Education Growth Magazine, No. 34 [Persian].
Mirzaei, Reza (2017) The Role of Preschool Education in Reducing Students' Vulnerability, Quarterly Journal of Psychological Studies, No. 24 [Persian].
Mofidi, farkhonde & Al-Gahband, Ali (2014), Preschool and Primary Education (Educational Sciences), Tehran, Payame Noor Publications [Persian].
Mofidi, Farkhonde. (2014). Fundamentals of Education in pre-primary education. Tehran: SAMT. [Persian]
Mohammadi Farsani, Fariborz (2017) Brain-compatible learning environment in preschool education [Persian].
Mohammadi Farsani, Fariborz (2017) Description of Preschool Curriculum in the World with Developments and Challenges, Curriculum Planning Quarterly, No. 28 [Persian].
Mohammadi, Naeima (2017) The effect of educational approaches on social skills of preschool children, Education Journal, No. 129 [Persian].
Mohseni, Shaban (2017) The Role of Empowering Parents of Preschool Children on Reducing the Symptoms of Coping Disorder, Iranian Journal of Social Work, Volume 17, Number 4 [Persian].
Mondal, Puja (2011) Elements, Sources and Types of Social Problems. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Vol. 54, No. 123.
Mondal, Seik Rahim (2013), Social Structure, OBCs and Muslims, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 38, No. 46 (Nov. 15-21, 2003), pp. 4892-4897
Moradi, Fateme (2015) Identifying Risk Factors of Family Factors on Aggressive Behavior of Children in Preschool, No. 39 [Persian].
Mousavi Chalak, Hassan (2006) The Role of Education in Prevention of Social Injuries, Program Scientific Quarterly, No. 174 [Persian].
Najafi, Mahmoud et al. (2013) Predicting social harms based on life skills in preschool, Journal of School Psychology, No. 144 [Persian].
Najjarpour, Nosratabadi Narges (2014) The Role of the Family in the Prevention and Crime of Social Disasters, Master Thesis, Exceptional Child Psychology [Persian].
Namjoo, Seyedeh Fateme (2009) Preschool in Iran, Japan and England, pre-school Roshd Magazine, Autumn 2009 - Issue 4 (Page 1 - From 32 to 32) [Persian].
Navabinejad, Shokouh (2011), Normal and abnormal behaviors of children and adolescents and ways to prevent and treat abnormals, Parents and Educators Association Publications, Tehran [Persian].
Ping, L & Meng, H (2006), The Quality Assurance System in Modern Distance Higher Education: Its Components and Operating Mechanism, 2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd. (Beijing)
Pring, R. (2000). Philosophy of educational research. London: Continuum Light, R., & Pillemer, D. (1984). Summing up: The science of reviewing research.
Rachel, Bonn (2016), The Relationship of Preschool Education to Personal Skills Development, Child Communication, Journal of Developmental Psychology, Volume 14, Issue 16
Rajabipour, Mahmood and Najafi, Hossein (2012), A Research on Developmental Social Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, Tehran: Mizan Publications [Persian].
Ramey, C.T., Campbell, F.A., & Burchinal, M. (2000). Persistent effects of early childhood education on high-risk children and their mothers. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 2-14.
Razavi Abdolhamid et al. (2015) The degree of adaptation of the intended and implemented curriculum in preschool 2, Quarterly Journal of Curriculum Theory and Practice, No. 5 [Persian].
Ritzer, F. (2014). The Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology, Third Edition, USA, BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Ross, Wayn (2014), Social Studies Curriculum, the: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities, fourth edition, New York, state university press
Saadatmand, Z., Liaghatdar, M. J. & Sadeghian, Z. (2012). Preschool curriculum assessment under the supervision of education organization from the viewpoint of principals and educators of Isfahan. Research in Curriculum Planning, 9(8), 132-145. [Persian]
Safi, Ahmad (2013), Principles and Techniques of Guidance and Counseling in Educational Courses, Tehran: Raheed Publications [Persian].
Sajjadieh, Narges et al. (2013) Detailed Critique of Preschool Activities, Quarterly Journal of Theory and Practice in Curriculum, No. 2 [Persian].
Saleki Maleki, Fateme (2015) Study of Verbal Information Behavior of Preschool Children in Tehran, Quarterly Journal of Theoretical and Applied Research, Year 8, No. 5 [Persian].
Samuelsson Ingrid Pramling and Yoshie Kaga(2008) The contribution of early childhood education to a sustainable society. Paris, UNESCO 2008
Sediq Sarvestani, Rahmatollah (2007) Social Pathology (Sociology of Social Deviations). Tehran: Its Publications [Persian].
Seif, Ali Akbar, (2005) Measurement, assessment. Tehran: Dora Publications [Persian].
Seyf, Ali Akbar. (2017). New Psychology: Psychology of Learning and Education. Tehran: Doran. [Persian].
Shamshiri, Babak (2019) Presenting the Indigenous Model of Religious Education of Preschool Children, Quarterly Journal of Preschool Education Development, No. 37 [Persian].
Shariatmadari, Ali, (2015), Society and Education, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications [Persian].
Shikhavandi, Davar (2007), Sociology of Social Pathology and Deviations, Tehran: Ghatre Publication [Persian].
Shirkhani, Tahereh (2016) The Importance of Empowering Children in Preschool, Iranian Journal of Social Work, Volume 15, Number 3 and 4 [Persian].
Sotoude, Hedayatolla (2019), Social Pathology (Sociology of Deviations), Avaye Noor Publications, [Persian].
Steiner Waldorf et al. (2015), The Impact of Preschool Education on Improving Educational Methods and Empowering Children, Quarterly Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies, Volume 67, Issue 10-11
Stephen N. Elliott. (2009) Social Skills Development Social Skills Development in Early Childhood in Early Childhood Enabling Learning, Growing Friends.psychgorp.
Tajalli,f, who didn’t. Procedia social and behavioral sciences. No. 5, pp 1390-1395.
Takhti, Mohammad (2010) The effect of preschool education on the growth of children's creativity in primary school, Master Thesis in Educational Psychology, Babolsar Branch of Azad University [Persian].
Talaee, Ebrahim, Big, Hamideh (2015), Explaining the Necessity of Early Childhood Education (Pre-School) Based on Evidence Synthesis Research, Contemporary Empirical, Quarterly Journal of Education, No. 122, p. 90 [Persian].
Vamaghi, Roshanak et al. (2009) Development of a Social Injury Reduction and Control Document, Social Welfare Quarterly, No. 32 [Persian].
Vernon A., & Bernard, M. E. (2006). Applications of REBT in schools: Prevention, promotion, intervention. In A. Ellis, & M. E. Bernard (Eds.), Rational emotive behavioral approaches to childhood disorders. New York: Springer.
World Health Organization. (2007).Chronic diseases and health Promotion. Retrieved January10, from www.who.int/chp/en
Yasemi, Sedighe et al. (2015) Comparison of social skills of preschool children, Journal of Preschool Studies, No. 2 [Persian].
Zeinalpour Samira (2019) Phenomenology of religious education of preschool children, Quarterly Journal of Educational Sciences from the Perspective of Islam, No. 11 [Persian].
 
اسناد و مدارک
Iran Information Center of the Ministry of Interior,2016 [Persian].
Iran Fundamental Transformation document of education 2010 [Persian].
Iran National Document on Early Childhood Comprehensive Growth and Development, 2013 [Persian].
Iran Textbooks Planning and Compilation Office,2015 [Persian].
Iran Sixth Development Plan, 2016 [Persian].