نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری تخصصی برنامه ریزی درسی دانشگاه خوارزمی، مربی گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه پیام نور.

2 دانشیار گروه مطالعات برنامه درسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیارگروه مدیریت ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، طراحی الگوی برنامۀ درسی تربیت بدنی و سلامت دورۀ اول متوسطه با رویکرد فرهنگی _ تربیتی  است. این پژوهش جزء پژوهش‌های آمیخته با طرح اکتشافی است که در دو بخش کیفی-کمّی انجام شده است؛ در بخش کیفی به فرایند طراحی الگو و در بخش کمّی با روش توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی، به اعتبارسنجی الگو پرداخته شده است. در بخش کیفی حوزۀ مطالعات شامل کلیۀ متون و منابع نظری و پژوهشی داخلی و خارجی در دسترس و همچنین 18 نفر از متخصصان و صاحب‌نظران حوزۀ برنامه‌ریزی درسی و تربیت بدنی است که به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و با تکنیک گلوله برفی انتخاب شده‌اند. ابزار گردآوری، مصاحبۀ نیمه‌ساختار یافته بود که از طریق روش‌های پرسش از همکار و چک اعضا، داده‌ها تأیید و برای تحلیل داده‌ها از روش تحلیل مضمون استفاده شد. در بخش کمّی و برای اعتبارسنجی الگوی طراحی و از نظرات 22 نفر از متخصصان دانشگاهی در حوزۀ برنامه‌ریزی درسی و رشتۀ تربیت بدنی طی پرسشنامه‌ای و برای بررسی روایی محتوای کمّی نیز از شاخص روایی محتوا (CVI) و نسبت روایی محتوا (CVR) استفاده شد. نسبت روایی مـحتوا به مقدار 72/0 و شاخص روایی محتوا به مقدار 90/0 مورد تأیید قرار گرفت و پایایی آن نیز با روش ضریب آلفای کرونباخ به مقدار89/0 تأیید شد. الگوی به ‌دست آمده متشکل از سه بخش مبانی، عناصر راهبردی و عناصر دهگانه اکر بود که برای هریک از بخش‌های الگو مؤلفه‌هایی ارائه شد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and validating Physical Education and Health Curriculum Model in First level Secondary School with a Cultural - Educational approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • parvin zolghadri 1
  • Marjan Kian 2
  • Majid Aliasgari 2
  • alireza elahi 3

1 PhD Student of curriculum Development, Department of Curriculum Studies, Kharazmi University, Faculty Member of Payame Noor University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum Studies, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The main purpose of this study was to design a model of physical education and health curriculum for secondary school with a cultural-educational approach. The research method is mixed with the exploratory design which was done in two qualitative-quantitative parts. In the qualitative part, the model was designed and in the quantitative part, the model was validated by descriptive-survey method. In the qualitative section, all available texts and theoretical and research sources were reviewed. Also, 18 specialists in curriculum planning and physical education participated, who were selected by purposive and snowball sampling. Data collection tool was semi-structured interview and content analysis method was used for data analysis. The validity of the data was verified through methods of asking a colleague and checking members. In the quantitative part, to validate the designed model, the opinions of 22 experts in curriculum planning and physical education were used. To evaluate the validity of quantitative content, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were used. The content validity ratio was confirmed with 0.72 and the content validity index with 0.90. Reliability was also confirmed by Cronbach's alpha with 0.89. The obtained model consisted of three sections of basics, strategic elements and ten elements of Acker, for each of which some components were presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Curriculum
  • physical education
  • cultural-educational approach
 Alimohammadi, H., Sohrabi, M., & Saberi, A. (2017). The teaching method of physical education teachers as a predictor of students' motivation for progress. Teaching and Learning Studies, 9(1), 129-141.
Abdullahi, M., Farrokhi, A., & Bagheri, K. (2001). Goals, principles, principles and methods of physical education in Islamic education, Move, 7(7).
Asadian, F. (2010). Combining physical education with math and geography. Razi University Master Thesis.
Azmoun, J. (2017). Knowledge base and its levels for teaching physical education. The growth of physical education, 17(3).
Abbasi Bakhtiari. R. (2011). Investigating the interplay of culture and sport. National conference on cultural industries and its role in sustainable development. Kermanshah: Islamic azad university Kermanshah.
Abbasi Bakhtiari. R. (2011). Investigating the interplay of culture and sport. National conference on cultural industries and its role in sustainable development. Kermanshah: Islamic azad university Kermanshah .
Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology: QualitativeResearch in Psychology. 3 (2): 77-101
Bahr al-Ulum, H., Ghasemi Roshanavand, J., & Emami Roshanavand, M. (2017). Analyzing the content of physical education and strengthening physical strength based on the verses of the Holy Quran2. Research in Educational Sports, 15.
Barrett, T. J. J. o. t. i. P. E. (2005). Effects of cooperative learning on performance of sixth-grade physical education students. 24(1), 88-102.
Bertschy, F., Künzli, C., & Lehmann, M. J. S. (2013). Teachers’ competencies for the implementation of educational offers in the field of education for sustainable development. 5(12), 5067-5080.
Coulter, M.,McGrane, B., & Woods, C. (2019). PE should be an integral part of each school day’:     parents’ and their children’s attitudes towards primary physical education. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 1-17
Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dadar, N. (2009). "Where is the position of educational sports in the education system?", Physical Education Development, 32.
Document, N. C. (2011). Secretariat of the Curriculum Production Plan, 28.
The document on the fundamental transformation of education in Iran. (2011).
Dyson, B., Griffin, L. L., & Hastie, P. J. Q. (2004). Sport education, tactical games, and cooperative learning: Theoretical and pedagogical considerations. 56(2), 226-240.
Domville, M., Watson, P.M., Richardson, D., Fisher Graves, L.E.(2018).  Children’s perceptions of factors that influence PE enjoyment: a qualitative investigation,. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 1-13.
Dashtkhaki .Z.R. (2013). Checking Secondary School Physical Education Curricula point of view Physical education teachers and experts , University of Kerman Shahid Bahonar
Darvishi, L., & Ahmadi, P. (2012). Content Analys Of the Caltural Activities in The Secondary Education Based On National And Relious Simbols, Research in Curriculum Planing, 9(8), 15-32.
Eisner Elliot, W. (1994). The Educational Imagination. On the Design and Evaluation of School Programs. In: New York: Macmillan.
Ernstein, A. C., & Hankins Francis, p. (2005). Basics of Curriculum Principles and Issues.
Eskandari, H. ( 2005). When you save someone 's life. The growth of school counselor education, 1.
Esmaili, M. R. (2004). Comparative study of elementary school physical education curriculum in Iran and selected countries of the world and presenting a model. Doctoral dissertation of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tehran Teacher Training University.
Fairclough, S. J., Weaver, R. G., Johnson, S., Rawlinson, J. J. J. o. s., & sport, m. i. (2018). Validation of an observation tool to assess physical activity-promoting physical education lessons in high schools: SOFIT. 21(5), 495-500.
Fathi Vajargah, C. (2009). Principles and Concepts of Curriculum Planning, Tehran: Bal Publications.
Fathi Vajargah, C. (2011). Principles and Concepts of Curriculum Planning, Tehran:  Bal Publications.
Fathi Vajargah, C. (2015). Towards New Curriculum Identities, Tehran: Ayiz Publications.
Ferrarro, J. (2001). Reflective practice & professional development. The Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) Digest, 00-3.
Garmabi, H.A., Maleki, H., Beheshti, S., Afhami, R. (2016). Designing and validating of native model for elementary curriculum based on aesthetics and art components, Quarterly of Preschool and Elementary School Studies, 1(2).
Gheshmi, M. A., Pourkiani, M., Rahmati, M. M.(2018). Thematic Analysis of the Culture of Sport in Iran. Quarterly Journal of Sport Development and Management, 8,(18).
Groll, M., Bronikowska, M., & Savola, J. (2016 ). Cultural aspects of Traditional Sports and Games, International committee for fair play, The Essence of Fair Play
Haji Babaei, H. R. (2014). Presenting the strategy of cultural-educational education in monotheistic education. Tomorrow Management Management Quarterly, 41, 35-48.
Hallaji, M. (2010). Empowering Strategies in Physical Education (Emotional Area). Education, 11(1).
Hardman, K. (2005). Global vision of the situations, trends and issues of sport and physical education in schools. Paper presented at the International conference on sport and physical education. Bangkok, Thailand.
Hassanpour, G. H. (2011). Indigenous, traditional, local sports, Tehran: Bamdad Ketab Publications.
Hobbs, M., & Moreland, A. (2009). Growth of empowerment in career science teachers: Implications for professional development. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Association for Science Teacher Education, Hartford, CT.
Howard, N. (2003). The Balanced Curriculum. NC Department of Public Instruction.
Hamidi. M, Taslimi. Z, Andam. R. (2016). Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Recruiting Volunteers in Sport for All. JRSM, 5 (10): 47-55.
Izadi, S., Hashemi, S., & Borzami, L. (2014). Study of effective factors in school rejuvenation from the perspective of students and school parents: with emphasis on cultural development Quarterly Journal of Socio-Cultural Development Studies.
Jafari, P., & Talebzadeh, F. (1998 ). model for cheerfulness and happiness in primary schools in Tehran. Educational Leadership and Management, 1.
Jalili, Q. (2011). The role of teachers in improving the quality and status of physical education. Education, 11(4).
Javadipour, M., Ali Asgari, M., Kiamanesh, A., & Khabiri, M. (2006). Design and Accreditation of Optimal Model of Physical Education Curriculum in Primary School in Iran. Research in Sports Science, 4, 71-86.
Johnson, M., & Ward, P. J. J. o. T. i. P. E. (2001). Effects of classwide peer tutoring on correct performance of striking skills in 3rd grade physical education, 20(3), 247-263.
Javadipour, M., Nowruzzadeh, R. (2011). Basics of the curriculum with the approach of physical education curriculum, Journal of Physical Education Development Growth,. 39, 52-60
Khaleqkhah, A., Rezaei Sharif, A., Zahed Babalan, A., & Hashemi, S. Z. (2015). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Jig Sao participatory learning education on self-regulation and academic motivation of elementary students, Teaching and learning studie, 7(2).
Khosravi, R. (2014). Explaining and criticizing curriculum liberalization and providing a model for the Iranian curriculum planning system with emphasis on Schwab's pragmatic theory and how to apply it in a province of the country (case of Zanjan province). Tarbiat Modares University doctoral dissertation.
Khalaji, H. Bahram, A. Aghapour, M. (2013). Principles and principles of physical education and sports science. Tehran: Samt. p: 6.
Khosravi Zadeh, E., Sunnah, A., & Haghdadi, A. (2011). The status of physical education curriculum in secondary schools in Markazi province. Iranian Curriculum Studies Quarterly, 23.
Klein, M., F. (1991). Curriculum design patterns. textbook of views, approaches and perspectives, by Mahmoud Mehr Mohammadi. Second Edition. Side Publications.
Kohandel, J., Mustafa Lu, F., & Mustafa Lu, H. (2015). The relationship between Islamic education and the biological and physical realm of the document of fundamental change based on the orders of the Supreme Leader. The first national conference on modern sports science, professional sports and health promotion. Gonbad-e Qabus.
Khoeini, P., avadipour, M.,Rouhi, M.(2019).Identifying Components of Effective Physical Education Teacher and Assessing Its Status in Zanjan Schools.1Motor Behavior, 11(38),47-70.
Kalajas-Tilga, H., Koka, A., Hein, V., Tilga, H., and Raudsepp, L. (2020). Motivational processes in physical education and objectively measured physical activity among adolescents. Journal of Sport & Health Science, 9, 462-471
Krawietz, B. (2014). Sport and Nationalism in the Republic of Turkey. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 31(3), 336-346.
Levy, A. (1947). Fundamentals of educational and curriculum planning of schools. translated by Farideh Mashayekh( 2004), Tehran: Madrasa Publications.
Lunenburg, F., & Ornstein, A. (2011). Educational administration: Concepts and practices: Nelson Education.
Lin, E. J. T. S. T. (2006). Cooperative learning in the science classroom. 34
Lahart, I., Darcy, P., Gidlow, C., & Calogiuri, G. (2019). The effects of green exercise on physical and mental wellbeing: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 16(8): 1352.
Maleki, H. (2011). The view of the spiritual curriculum based on the philosophy of Islamic education.
Maliji, M. (2016). Designing and validating the model of physical education curriculum in Iranian preschool. PhD thesis, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University.
Mehr Mohammadi, M. (2009). Curriculum of Perspectives, Approaches and Perspectives. Tehran: Astan Quds Razavi (Publishing Company), 241.
Mehr Mohammadi, M. (2010a). Critique and commentary on the third mapping of the curriculum document of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian Curriculum Studies Quarterly, 18.
Mehr Mohammadi, M. (2010b). Critique and Commentary on the Third Mapping of the Curriculum Document of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Quarterly Journal of Iran Curriculum Studie, 18, 8-31.
Mohammadi, S. (2011). Education without physical education Never, principles and foundations of physical education in the European Union. Growth of Physical Education, 41.
Musapur, N. (2012). Approaches to change in the education system and curriculum of Iran: from engineering approach to cultural approach. Culture Strategy, 17-18
Mohammadi, Y., Kikha, A., & Alipour Moghadam, K. (2016). Balanced curriculum design with an innate spiritual curriculum planning approach. Research on education issues and Education, 22(24)
Moammer. H. J., Dehghani, M., Hejazi, E., Salehi, K. (2020). Designing an Independent Thinking Curriculum for High School Students, Research in Curriculum Planning, 17(39), 80-94
Mir Hosseini, F.(2016). Designing the professional qualification model for physical education teachers of Iran [doctoral dissertation]. Tehran: Kharazmi University.
Minaei, S.P.Z.(2020). An Evaluation of the Methods of Content and Environment Happiness of Physical Activities in Students of Kurdistan Province, Journal of Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tehran, 13(1).
Naderi, A. (2013). Designing and validating the curriculum model of extracurricular activities for high school students with emphasis on NAJA public education. Quarterly Journal of Social Security Studies, 35, 47-82.
The National Curriculum Islamic Republic of Iran (2010). Secretariat of the national curriculum.
Nedaei, T., & Alavi, K. (2008). Exercise ethics with a fair play approach. Quarterly Journal of Qom University, 10(2), 187-220. .
Pesce, C., Faigenbaum, A., Crova, C., Marchetti, R., & Bellucci, M. J. H. E. J. (2013). Benefits of multi-sports physical education in the elementary school context. 72(3), 326-336.
Pourrostami, E. (2013). Increasing students' learning in chemistry by creating a positive educational and cultural attitude. the eighth seminar of Iranian chemistry education, September 27
Poitras, V. J., Gray, C. E., Borghese, M. M., Carson, V., Chaput, J. P., Janssen, I., & Sampson, M. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(6), S197-S239.
Poblacion, A. P., Basile Colugnati, F. A., Taddei, J. A., Bracco, M. M.(2016). Effect of an Educational Program on Schoolcheildren ’s Energy Expenditure during Physical Education Classes. MedicalExpress ( Sao Paulo, online), 3(1):1-9. 27.
Powell, E., Woodfield, L. A., Nevill, A. M. (2016). Increasing physical activity levels in primary school physical education: The Sharp Principles Model, Preventive medicine report. 3:7-13
Roset, L., Green, K., & Thurston, M. J. E. P. E. R. (2020). ‘Even if you don’t care… you do care after Sadeghi, A. (2011). Characteristics and Necessities of Developing a Multicultural Curriculum in Iran: A Study of Challenges and Presenting Strategies. Culture Strategy, 17-18.
Razavi, M. H., Rouhani, Z., & Ghanbari Firoozabadi, A. (2014). Analysis of effective factors in promoting the status of physical education in schools. Sports Management and Motor Behavior, 10(19). Sabori, H. (2014). Sports in Islam. Tehran: Sabori, third edition.
Safari, Z., Mohammadzadeh, Z., & Tavakoli, M. (2015). The physical environment of schools and its role in the health and mental health of students International Conference on Humanities and Psychology and Social Sciences. Broadcasting International Conference Center.
Samadi, M. (2014). Evaluating the views of teachers of experimental sciences and social education, the implementer of the education plan based on the educational approach about the content of the teachers' workbook in the above courses. Research in curriculum planning, 2, 122-135.
Sarkararani, M. R. (2010). Dialogue: A cultural approach to education. Teacher Growth, 1.
Schüller, I., & Demetriou, Y. J. E. R. R. (2018). Physical activity interventions promoting social competence at school: A systematic review. 25, 39-55.
Shabani Bahar, G., Erfani, N., & Eshraghi, A. (2008). Factors Affecting the Quality of Physical Education Curriculum in Secondary Schools from the Perspective of Teachers. Quarterly Journal of Research in Sports Science, 20.
Shafinia, P. (2004). Designing a model for teaching content and evaluation of physical education curriculum in girls' middle schools from the perspective of teachers. Tehran: Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Tarbiat Moallem University, Ph.D.
Shamli, A. A., Maleki, H., & Kazemi, H. R. (2011). Curriculum as a tool to achieve moral education. Quarterly Journal of Islam and Educational Research, 2(3), 77-98.
Santos, S, Mesquita, I, Graca, A, Rosado, A. (2010). Coaches’ Perceptions of Competence and Acknowledgement of Training Needs Related to Professional Competences. Journal of Sports science & Medicine, 9(1), 62-70.
Sánchez-Oliva, D., Mouratidis, A., Leo, F.M., Chamorro, J.L., Pulido, J.J., García-Calvo, T. (2020). Understanding physical activity intentions in physical education context: A multi-level analysis from the self-determination theory. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 17, 799.
Salehi, M.,  Abdollahpour, K .(2018). The effect of collaborative learning to handle the country (in the classroom) with teacher assistance in Second high school female students. Research in Curriculum Planning, 15(30), 67-79.
Samadi,P., Javadipour, M., Lotfi, M.(2012). The Pathology of physical education curriculum with an emphasis on Klein`s theory of from the perspective of physical education teachers and girl students in Tehran.
Schwartz, J., Rhodes, R., Bredin, S., Oh, P., & Warburton, D. (2019). Effectiveness of approaches to increase physical activity behavior to prevent chronic disease in adults: A brief commentary. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(3): 295dolescents in Morocco: a cross sectional study. BioMed Research InternationaL, 8949757
Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice.
Tyler, R. W. (2013). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction: University of Chicago press.
 van den Akker, J. J., Kuiper, W., & Hameyer, U. (2004). Curriculum landscapes and trends: Springer.
Wood, C., Hall, K.(2015). Physical education or playtime: which is more effective at promoting physical activity in primary school children? BMC Research Notes, 8(1), 12- 28
Yıldız, E., Kangalgil, M. (2014). The examination of physical education teacher’s professional competence and Ideas regarding their teaching method. Journal of sport sciences, 5(1), 61-76
Zareiyan, H. and Barancheshmeh, M. A. (2015). Establishment of the Ethics Code for Physical Education Officers of the Armed Forces of Iran, Research Project, Physical Education Organization of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.