نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات ، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش باهدف، طراحی و اعتبار یابی الگوی برنامه درسی تلفیقی در دوره پیش‌دبستان با تمرکز بر حیطه روانی _حرکتی انجام شد؛ که ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و از حیث روش تحقیق، آمیخته اکتشافی است. در مرحله کیفی، از روش زمینه‌ای و در مرحله کمی، از روش پیمایشی استفاده‌شده است جامعه موردبررسی در بخش کیفی متخصصان برنامه درسی که با نمونه‌گیری هدفمند 10 نفر از متخصصان انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته که با راهبرد نظریه زمینه‌ای تحلیل شد. در بخش کمی جامعه موردبررسی متخصصان برنامه درسی و مربیان دوره پیش‌دبستانی است. حجم نمونه بر اساس فرمول کوکران، در مورد متخصصان با روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای 28 متخصص زن، 44 متخصص مرد و برای جامعه مربیان با روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای 159 نفر انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه محقق ساخته که پایایی آن با روش آلفای کرونباخ 84/0 و از روایی صوری و محتوایی استفاده‌شده است. جهت تحلیل داده‌ها آزمون خی دو مورداستفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش کیفی، شناسایی و استخراج مؤلفه‌های الگوی برنامه درسی تلفیقی، به‌منظور ارائه الگوی نظری پیشنهاد گردید و نتایج پژوهش کمی در تأیید نتایج پژوهش کیفی اجرا شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Design and Validation of Integrated Curriculum Model for Preschools Focusing on Mental and Kinetic

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behnaz Yousefivaghef 1
  • maryam Seif naraghi 2
  • Ezatollah Naderi 2

1 Student of Science and Research branch Islamic Azad University - Science and Research branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor Science and Research branch Islamic Azad University -Science and Research branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to design and validation of integrated Curriculum model for preschools focusing on mental and kinetic; Which is applied in terms of purpose and exploratory in terms of research method. In the qualitative stage, the field research was used and in the quantitative stage, the survey method was used. In the qualitative stage, the study population is curriculum specialists who were selected by purposive sampling of 10 specialists. Data collection tools were semi-structured interviews that were analyzed with the underlying theory strategy. In the quantitative stage, the study population is curriculum specialists and preschool teachers. The sample size was selected according to Cochran's formula, for specialists by stratified random sampling method, 28 female specialists, 44 male specialists and for the community of trainers by cluster random sampling method, 159 people were selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire whose reliability was 0.84 by Cronbach's alpha method and face and content validity was used. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. The results of qualitative research, identification and extraction of components of the integrated curriculum model were proposed in order to provide a theoretical model and the results of quantitative research were performed to confirm the results of qualitative research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • curriculum model
  • integrated curriculum
  • preschool
  • Mental and Kinetic
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Abedi, A; Kazemi, F.& Shoushtari, M( 2015). The effectiveness of aerobic exercise training on improving executive functions and attention of children with neuropsychological learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities, Vo l. 4, No.2, Pp, 38-54. [Persian].
Acelajado, M. J. (2011). Blended learning: a strategy for improving the mathematics achievement of students in a bridging program. Electronic Journal of Mathematics and Technology, Vo l. 5, No. 3, Pp, 342-352.
Ahmadi, P, Sobhaninejad, M & Amiri, M.( 2015). Interdisciplinary organization of the curriculum with emphasis on the effect of segmentation of course content, educational research and learning of Shahed University, Vol. 22, No. 6,Pp. 122-97. [Persian].
Ahmadi, P. (2009). Interdisciplinary curriculum. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities. Vo 1, No. 3, Pp, 97-126. [Persian].
Ahmadi, P.( 2003). The model of the integrated curriculum and its place in the elementary curriculum of Iran, Daneshvar Raftar, Vol. 10, No. 3,Pp. 12-3. [Persian].
Akker, V. D. J.( 2003). Curriculum perspectives: An introduction, In Van den Akker, J., Kuiper, W. and Hameyer, U. (Eds.), Curriculum Landscapes and Trends. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Alexander Nejad, M.(.2015). Help and training aerobic basic movements. Fourth Edition, Tabriz: Akhtar. [Persian].
Ajam, AA, Jafari Thani& H. Akbari Borang, M.. (2017). Designing a Combined Education Curriculum Model for the Higher Education System Based on the Acre Model. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l. 14, No. 53, Pp, 1-16. [Persian].
Bredekamp, S. (2014). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Bricker, D. D. (1998). An activity-based approach to early intervention. Paul H Brookes Publishing Company.
Case-Smith, J., Clark, G. J. F., & Schlabach, T. L. (2013). Systematic review of interventions used in occupational therapy to promote motor performance for children ages birth–5 years. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vo l. 67, No. 4, Pp,  413-424.
Chaya, M. S., Nagendra, H., Selvam, S., Kurpad, A., & Srinivasan, K. (2012). Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vo l. 18, No. 12, Pp, 1161-1167.
Costley, K. C. (2015). Research Supporting Integrated Curriculum: Evidence for Using This Method of Instruction in Public School Classrooms. Online Submission.
Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Effect of blended learning environment on transfer of learning: An experimental study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vo l. 29, No. 6, Pp, 518-529.
Duibhir, P. & Cummins, J.( 2012). Towards an Integrated Language Curriculum in Early Childhood and Primary Education (3-12 years). National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.
Ellis, A. K. & Fouts, J. T.( 2001). Interdisciplinary curriculum: The research base. Music Educators Journal, Vo l. 87, No. 5, Pp, 22-22.
Fathi Vajargah, K .(2015). Principles of curriculum planning. Tehran: Iran Zamin.
Fernández-Oliveras, A., Correa, V. M., & Oliveras, M. L. (2016). Estudio de una propuesta lúdica para la educación científica y matemática globalizada en infantil. Revista Eureka sobre Enseñanza y Divulgación de las Ciencias, Vo l. 13, No. 2, Pp,  373-383.
Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Habibi, P & Ahmadi Qaracheh, A M.( 2014). Global patterns of preschool education based on European and American models, Tehran: Soroush. [Persian].
Hanline, M. F. (1999). Developing a preschool play-based curriculum. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, Vo l. 46, No. 3, Pp, 289-305.
Hashemi, S A.( 2012). Curriculum: Principles and Application, Lamerd: Lamerd Azad University. [Persian].
Hossein A. M; Faramarzi, S & Abedi, A.( 2019). The effect of a package of timely neuropsychological interventions on motor function in children with developmental delays. Journal of Neuropsychology, Vo l.5, No. 17, Pp, 9-24. [Persian].
Hosseini, Sh, Heidari, M H & Saadatmand, Z.( 2019). A Comparative Study of Montessori and Loris Malagatsi's Perspective on Early Childhood Education. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l.16, No. 62, Pp, 82-105. [Persian].
Humphreys, A.H., Post, Th.R., & Ellis, A.K. (1981), Interdisciplinary methods, a thematic approach. Softcover, Goodyear Pub. Co.
Jafari Z, Samadi, P & Ghaedi Y. (2015 ).Investigating the effect of teaching philosophy to children on cultivating the research spirit of preschool children. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l.12, No. 44, Pp, 41-49. [Persian].
Jafari Sani, H, Karami M. & Pak Mehr, H.( 2014). Identifying the integration model of humanities curriculum and its distance from the expected situation based on Fogarty's perspective, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol 5, No 4, Pp. 119-134. [Persian].
Jafari Sani, H & Ghorbani, N.( 2008). The effect of combining the content of the four main sections of the textbook of the first grade of middle school based on the integrated organization approach (project type) on the academic achievement and social development of first grade female students. Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations, Vol. 7.No. 28, Pp. 157-178. [Persian].
Javadipour, M. et al.( 2006). Designing and validating the optimal model of physical education curriculum in elementary school in Iran. Research in Sports Science, Vol. 4. No. 12, Pp.71-86. [Persian].
Jepsen, R. H., & VonThaden, K. (2002). The effect of cognitive education on the performance of students with neurological developmental disabilities. NeuroRehabilitation, Vo l 17, No. 3, Pp,  201-209.
Kafouri, E. Maleki. K. & Khosravi Babadi, A( 2015). Investigating the Role of Klein Curriculum Elements in Mathematics Failure in the First Year of High School from the Perspective of Curriculum Partners, Journal of Curriculum Planning Research, No. 44, Pp. 62-50. [Persian].
Kazempour, I. Shah Bahrami, N .(2016). Provide a model to address the shortcomings of the teacher training curriculum. Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Vol. 7, No. 1, Pp.24-36. [Persian].
Khakbaz, A. Moosapour, N.( 2009). Experience of Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Iran: A Case Study of Master of Mathematics Education, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol. 1, No.4. Pp. 85-121. [Persian].
Klein,j.T.( 2010). creating interdiscilipinary campuse cultures: a model for strength and sustainability. Jossey_bass publication.
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into practice, Vo l 41, No. 4, Pp, 212-218.
Mahroozadeh, T. Noorabadi, S.( 2014). Combining science and technology in the elementary school curriculum. Educational research.Vol. 29. No. 29. Pp.18-41. [Persian].
Mehrmohammadi, M.( 2014). Integrated concept in curriculum planning. Iranian Encyclopedia of Curriculum, Pp. 1-5. [Persian].
 Mehrmohammadi, M..( 2017). Curriculum: Perspectives, Approaches and Perspectives. Tehran: Samat. [Persian].
Miller, J 2017. Curriculum theories. Translated by Mahmoud Mehr Mohammadi. Tehran: Samat Publications. [Persian].
Mofidi, F. (2014). Preschool and child-centered approach, the growth of preschool education, Vo l  2 , No. 23, Pp 10-25. [Persian].
Mohammadi Mehr, M. Fathi Vajargah, K.( 2010). Provide an interdisciplinary integration model model in curriculum design. Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol 2, No. 4,Pp. 19-19. [Persian].
Naderi, E. Seif Naraghi, M.( 2018). Detailed research proposal distributed in research method classrooms. [Persian].
Nejati, H.(2013). Developmental psychology (childhood - adolescence). Tehran: Infinite. [Persian].
Noorabadi, S. Ahmadi, P.& Dabiri Esfahani, O.( 2014). Necessity and possibility of changing the curriculum of the Iranian higher education system to an integrated curriculum: a case study, educational management orientation, undergraduate course, Quarterly Journal of Education and Evaluation, Vol. 7. No. 25. Pp. 101-122. [Persian].
Pawilen, G. T., Arre J. P.& Lindo, E. F.( 2010). Designing an integrated curriculum for preschool. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early ChildhoodEducation. Vol 4, No.2, pp 57-76.
Peyghami, A. Turani, H.( 2009). Typology of Integrated Approaches in Curriculum Design and Its Applied Implications for Economics, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vo l. 2, No. 1, Pp. 85-57. [Persian].
Piri, R. Adib, Y.( 2009). The optimal curriculum model for preschool. Journal of Educational Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5,Pp. 82-53. [Persian].
Qasem Tabar, S. N. & Fallah Shahidi, A.( 2018). Early Childhood Education in Iran: Introducing a Curriculum. Tehran: Academic. [Persian].
Saadatmand. Z. Liaqtdar, M J.& Sadeghian, Z. (2012). Needs assessment of preschool curriculum under the supervision of education from the perspective of managers and educators in Isfahan. Research in curriculum planning. Vol. 9, No 2. Pp. 132- 145. [Persian].
Sabzeh, B.( 2015). Designing an Entrepreneurship Curriculum Model for Preschool Children and Evaluating It from the Perspective of Curriculum Specialists, Entrepreneurs and Educators. Quarterly Journal of Preschool and Primary Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp.160-140. [Persian].
Safarnavadeh, M. Mohammadi Farsani, F. & Jafari Ghavamabad, A.( 2015) Model of integrated curriculum in general dentistry education in Iran, Quarterly Journal of Qualitative Research in Curriculum, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp. 61-80. [Persian].
Safavi, A.( 2017). General methods and methods of teaching, Tehran: Samat. [Persian].
Salimi, J. Maleki, H. & Mehr Mohammadi, M..( 2011). Presenting an optimal model for designing an interdisciplinary curriculum for the bachelor of social sciences, Curriculum Research Quarterly, Vol.1, No 2. Pp. 105-130. [Persian].
Smith,N.V.( 2013). Face to Face vs.blended learning: effects on secondary students, perceptions and performance procedia social and behavioral sciences.
Soleimani, T. Seif Naraghi, M. Shariatmadari, A. et al.( 2008). The role of integration in the first grade of elementary school curricula, Quarterly Journal of Leadership and Educational Management. Vol. 2, No. 3, Pp, 122-107. [Persian].
Statistics in the statistical yearbook of the Ministry of Education (2019) Center for Human Resources Planning and Information Technology, Soura Publications, page 108 and IRNA news agency. [Persian].
Vars, G. F.( 1991). Integrated curriculum in historical perspective. Educational Leadership, Vo l. 49, No. 2, Pp, 14-15.
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Abbaspour, K. Fathi Rezaei, Z. & Vazmani Thani, S H.(2020). The effect of natural and indoor outdoor play on social and perceptual development of preschool children. Motor Behavior, Vo l.12, No. 40, Pp, 103-120. [Persian].
Abedi, A; Kazemi, F.& Shoushtari, M( 2015). The effectiveness of aerobic exercise training on improving executive functions and attention of children with neuropsychological learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities, Vo l. 4, No.2, Pp, 38-54. [Persian].
Acelajado, M. J. (2011). Blended learning: a strategy for improving the mathematics achievement of students in a bridging program. Electronic Journal of Mathematics and Technology, Vo l. 5, No. 3, Pp, 342-352.
Ahmadi, P, Sobhaninejad, M & Amiri, M.( 2015). Interdisciplinary organization of the curriculum with emphasis on the effect of segmentation of course content, educational research and learning of Shahed University, Vol. 22, No. 6,Pp. 122-97. [Persian].
Ahmadi, P. (2009). Interdisciplinary curriculum. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities. Vo 1, No. 3, Pp, 97-126. [Persian].
Ahmadi, P.( 2003). The model of the integrated curriculum and its place in the elementary curriculum of Iran, Daneshvar Raftar, Vol. 10, No. 3,Pp. 12-3. [Persian].
Akker, V. D. J.( 2003). Curriculum perspectives: An introduction, In Van den Akker, J., Kuiper, W. and Hameyer, U. (Eds.), Curriculum Landscapes and Trends. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Alexander Nejad, M.(.2015). Help and training aerobic basic movements. Fourth Edition, Tabriz: Akhtar. [Persian].
Ajam, AA, Jafari Thani& H. Akbari Borang, M.. (2017). Designing a Combined Education Curriculum Model for the Higher Education System Based on the Acre Model. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l. 14, No. 53, Pp, 1-16. [Persian].
Bredekamp, S. (2014). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Bricker, D. D. (1998). An activity-based approach to early intervention. Paul H Brookes Publishing Company.
Case-Smith, J., Clark, G. J. F., & Schlabach, T. L. (2013). Systematic review of interventions used in occupational therapy to promote motor performance for children ages birth–5 years. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vo l. 67, No. 4, Pp,  413-424.
Chaya, M. S., Nagendra, H., Selvam, S., Kurpad, A., & Srinivasan, K. (2012). Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vo l. 18, No. 12, Pp, 1161-1167.
Costley, K. C. (2015). Research Supporting Integrated Curriculum: Evidence for Using This Method of Instruction in Public School Classrooms. Online Submission.
Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Effect of blended learning environment on transfer of learning: An experimental study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vo l. 29, No. 6, Pp, 518-529.
Duibhir, P. & Cummins, J.( 2012). Towards an Integrated Language Curriculum in Early Childhood and Primary Education (3-12 years). National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.
Ellis, A. K. & Fouts, J. T.( 2001). Interdisciplinary curriculum: The research base. Music Educators Journal, Vo l. 87, No. 5, Pp, 22-22.
Fathi Vajargah, K .(2015). Principles of curriculum planning. Tehran: Iran Zamin.
Fernández-Oliveras, A., Correa, V. M., & Oliveras, M. L. (2016). Estudio de una propuesta lúdica para la educación científica y matemática globalizada en infantil. Revista Eureka sobre Enseñanza y Divulgación de las Ciencias, Vo l. 13, No. 2, Pp,  373-383.
Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Habibi, P & Ahmadi Qaracheh, A M.( 2014). Global patterns of preschool education based on European and American models, Tehran: Soroush. [Persian].
Hanline, M. F. (1999). Developing a preschool play-based curriculum. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, Vo l. 46, No. 3, Pp, 289-305.
Hashemi, S A.( 2012). Curriculum: Principles and Application, Lamerd: Lamerd Azad University. [Persian].
Hossein A. M; Faramarzi, S & Abedi, A.( 2019). The effect of a package of timely neuropsychological interventions on motor function in children with developmental delays. Journal of Neuropsychology, Vo l.5, No. 17, Pp, 9-24. [Persian].
Hosseini, Sh, Heidari, M H & Saadatmand, Z.( 2019). A Comparative Study of Montessori and Loris Malagatsi's Perspective on Early Childhood Education. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l.16, No. 62, Pp, 82-105. [Persian].
Humphreys, A.H., Post, Th.R., & Ellis, A.K. (1981), Interdisciplinary methods, a thematic approach. Softcover, Goodyear Pub. Co.
Jafari Z, Samadi, P & Ghaedi Y. (2015 ).Investigating the effect of teaching philosophy to children on cultivating the research spirit of preschool children. Research in Curriculum Planning, Vo l.12, No. 44, Pp, 41-49. [Persian].
Jafari Sani, H, Karami M. & Pak Mehr, H.( 2014). Identifying the integration model of humanities curriculum and its distance from the expected situation based on Fogarty's perspective, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol 5, No 4, Pp. 119-134. [Persian].
Jafari Sani, H & Ghorbani, N.( 2008). The effect of combining the content of the four main sections of the textbook of the first grade of middle school based on the integrated organization approach (project type) on the academic achievement and social development of first grade female students. Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations, Vol. 7.No. 28, Pp. 157-178. [Persian].
Javadipour, M. et al.( 2006). Designing and validating the optimal model of physical education curriculum in elementary school in Iran. Research in Sports Science, Vol. 4. No. 12, Pp.71-86. [Persian].
Jepsen, R. H., & VonThaden, K. (2002). The effect of cognitive education on the performance of students with neurological developmental disabilities. NeuroRehabilitation, Vo l 17, No. 3, Pp,  201-209.
Kafouri, E. Maleki. K. & Khosravi Babadi, A( 2015). Investigating the Role of Klein Curriculum Elements in Mathematics Failure in the First Year of High School from the Perspective of Curriculum Partners, Journal of Curriculum Planning Research, No. 44, Pp. 62-50. [Persian].
Kazempour, I. Shah Bahrami, N .(2016). Provide a model to address the shortcomings of the teacher training curriculum. Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Vol. 7, No. 1, Pp.24-36. [Persian].
Khakbaz, A. Moosapour, N.( 2009). Experience of Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Iran: A Case Study of Master of Mathematics Education, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol. 1, No.4. Pp. 85-121. [Persian].
Klein,j.T.( 2010). creating interdiscilipinary campuse cultures: a model for strength and sustainability. Jossey_bass publication.
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into practice, Vo l 41, No. 4, Pp, 212-218.
Mahroozadeh, T. Noorabadi, S.( 2014). Combining science and technology in the elementary school curriculum. Educational research.Vol. 29. No. 29. Pp.18-41. [Persian].
Mehrmohammadi, M.( 2014). Integrated concept in curriculum planning. Iranian Encyclopedia of Curriculum, Pp. 1-5. [Persian].
 Mehrmohammadi, M..( 2017). Curriculum: Perspectives, Approaches and Perspectives. Tehran: Samat. [Persian].
Miller, J 2017. Curriculum theories. Translated by Mahmoud Mehr Mohammadi. Tehran: Samat Publications. [Persian].
Mofidi, F. (2014). Preschool and child-centered approach, the growth of preschool education, Vo l  2 , No. 23, Pp 10-25. [Persian].
Mohammadi Mehr, M. Fathi Vajargah, K.( 2010). Provide an interdisciplinary integration model model in curriculum design. Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, Vol 2, No. 4,Pp. 19-19. [Persian].
Naderi, E. Seif Naraghi, M.( 2018). Detailed research proposal distributed in research method classrooms. [Persian].
Nejati, H.(2013). Developmental psychology (childhood - adolescence). Tehran: Infinite. [Persian].
Noorabadi, S. Ahmadi, P.& Dabiri Esfahani, O.( 2014). Necessity and possibility of changing the curriculum of the Iranian higher education system to an integrated curriculum: a case study, educational management orientation, undergraduate course, Quarterly Journal of Education and Evaluation, Vol. 7. No. 25. Pp. 101-122. [Persian].
Pawilen, G. T., Arre J. P.& Lindo, E. F.( 2010). Designing an integrated curriculum for preschool. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early ChildhoodEducation. Vol 4, No.2, pp 57-76.
Peyghami, A. Turani, H.( 2009). Typology of Integrated Approaches in Curriculum Design and Its Applied Implications for Economics, Quarterly Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vo l. 2, No. 1, Pp. 85-57. [Persian].
Piri, R. Adib, Y.( 2009). The optimal curriculum model for preschool. Journal of Educational Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5,Pp. 82-53. [Persian].
Qasem Tabar, S. N. & Fallah Shahidi, A.( 2018). Early Childhood Education in Iran: Introducing a Curriculum. Tehran: Academic. [Persian].
Saadatmand. Z. Liaqtdar, M J.& Sadeghian, Z. (2012). Needs assessment of preschool curriculum under the supervision of education from the perspective of managers and educators in Isfahan. Research in curriculum planning. Vol. 9, No 2. Pp. 132- 145. [Persian].
Sabzeh, B.( 2015). Designing an Entrepreneurship Curriculum Model for Preschool Children and Evaluating It from the Perspective of Curriculum Specialists, Entrepreneurs and Educators. Quarterly Journal of Preschool and Primary Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp.160-140. [Persian].
Safarnavadeh, M. Mohammadi Farsani, F. & Jafari Ghavamabad, A.( 2015) Model of integrated curriculum in general dentistry education in Iran, Quarterly Journal of Qualitative Research in Curriculum, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pp. 61-80. [Persian].
Safavi, A.( 2017). General methods and methods of teaching, Tehran: Samat. [Persian].
Salimi, J. Maleki, H. & Mehr Mohammadi, M..( 2011). Presenting an optimal model for designing an interdisciplinary curriculum for the bachelor of social sciences, Curriculum Research Quarterly, Vol.1, No 2. Pp. 105-130. [Persian].
Smith,N.V.( 2013). Face to Face vs.blended learning: effects on secondary students, perceptions and performance procedia social and behavioral sciences.
Soleimani, T. Seif Naraghi, M. Shariatmadari, A. et al.( 2008). The role of integration in the first grade of elementary school curricula, Quarterly Journal of Leadership and Educational Management. Vol. 2, No. 3, Pp, 122-107. [Persian].
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