نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش درصدد استنتاج مبانی و اصول برنامه درسی روئیدنی در دوره پیش دبستان بوده است. برای این منظور پس از تحلیل اسنادی و مفهومی ماهیت این برنامه، با بهره‌گیری از روش پژوهش «استنتاج پس‌رونده» به استنباط مبانی این برنامه پرداخته شده است. در طرح پس‌رونده در ابتدا کلیه مصادیق این برنامه از 60 سند معتبر ملی و بین‌المللی (کتب، مقالات، رساله‌های مکتوب و الکترونیکی) از سال 1994 تا سال 2020 استخراج شدند، سپس به منظور تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌های جمع‌آوری شده در سه مرحله، کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی داده‌ها دسته‌بندی و حدود 31 مبنا احصاء شد. در ادامه با بهره‌گیری از روش «استنتاج پیش‌رونده» اصول ناظر به هر مبنا استنتاج شدند. نمونه‌گیری مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، از نوع هدفمند بوده است؛ چراکه به بررسی اسناد موثر در فهم مسئله پژوهش پرداخته شده است. جهت اعتباربخشی نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، مراحل کدگذاری در تعامل با متخصصین برنامه‌ریزی درسی و فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، حدود 10 بار مورد بازنگری دقیق قرار گرفتند. اهم یافته‌ها پیرامون ماهیت برنامه درسی روئیدنی عبارتند از پدیده‌ای منعطف، پویا و مارپیچ چندبعدی با سطح مقطع‌های متفاوت. مهم‌ترین مبانی برنامه درسی روئیدنی در دوره پیش‌دبستان عبارتند از اینکه کودک موجودی منعطف با ابعاد همه‌جانبه، دارای هویت اجتماعی و استعدادهای منحصربفرد است و معرفت نیز اکتشافی، پویا، بدیع و متناظر با علایق کودکان است. برخی از اصول اساسی برنامه درسی روئیدنی نیز شامل جامع‌نگری به کودک، توجه به تفاوت‌های فردی، تدارک امکان کندوکاو، ارتباط با پدیده موردمطالعه و فرضیه‌سازی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of the Emergent Curriculum Nature in Preschool and Its Inferred foundations and Principles

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Joda 1
  • Marjan Kian 2
  • Ali hoseinikhah 3
  • mehdi sobhaninejad 4

1 PhD in Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Educational, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor in Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor in Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor in Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

This study proposes the foundations and principles of the emergent curriculum in preschool. For this purpose, we address the conceptual and documentation analysis of this curriculum. Hence, using the research method of “regressive inference”, the foundations of the emergent curriculum have been deduced. Firstly, all instances of emergent curriculum were extracted from 60 valid national and international documents (including books, articles, written and electronic thesis) from 1994 to 2020. Then, the collected data were classified in three stages; including open coding, axial and selective data in order to analyze them. Approximately, 31 selective codes were recognized. In addition, the principles were inferred by use of the “progressive inference” method. Since, this research investigates the effective documents in order to understand the research problem, its employed sampling is considered purposeful. To validate the results, the coding steps were carefully reviewed about 10 times in interaction with curriculum planning and philosophy of education experts. The most important findings about nature are that emergent curriculum is a flexible, dynamic and multidimensional spiral phenomenon with different cross-sections. The main foundations are that child is a flexible creature with comprehensive dimensions, social identity, and unique talents. Knowledge is exploratory, dynamic and innovative and corresponding to children’s interests. Some of its basic principles include a holistic view of the child and attention to individual differences; providing the possibility of exploration; Relation to the phenomenon under study, hypothesizing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • emergent curriculum
  • progressive inference
  • regressive inference
  • preschool
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