نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسنده

استادیار، عضو هیئت علمی سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، مرور نظام‌مند مطالعات کلاس‌های چندپایه در ایران برای دسته‌بندی و ارائۀ تصویری کلی از چالش‌های کلاس‌های چندپایه و راهکارهای شناسایی‌شده و تحلیل آن‌ها بود. پژوهش حاضر به روش کیفی از نوع مرور نظام‌مند انجام شد. پژوهش‌های معتبر از طریق جست‌وجوی الکترونیکی کلیدواژه‌های کلاس‌های چندپایه، آموزش چندپایه و تدریس چندپایه در پایگاه‌های علمی مرکز اطلاعات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی، مجلات تخصصی نور، گوگل اسکولار، پژوهشگاه علوم و فناوری اطلاعات ایران، بانک اطلاعات نشریات کشور، پرتال جامع علوم انسانی و سامانه نشر مجلات علمی دانشگاه تهران با در نظر گرفتن بازۀ زمانی 1386-1399 انجام شد. فرایند شناسایی، غربالگری، تعیین صلاحیت و ورود به مطالعۀ نمونه بر اساس بیانیۀ پریزما صورت گرفت. در جست‌وجوهای انجام شده 204 مطالعه برای انجام مرور نظام‌مند شناسایی شدند که پس از حذف موارد تکراری و غربالگری‌های صورت گرفته شده، در نهایت 35 پژوهش که دارای معیارهای ورود به مطالعه بودند انتخاب و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. مستندات انتخاب‌شده بر اساس فراتحلیل کیفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در تحلیل چالش‌های مربوط به کلاس‌های چندپایه، یافته‌ها حاکی از پنج طبقۀ اصلی از چالش‌ها شاملِ چالش‌های مربوط به معلمان، دانش‌آموزان، جامعه و محیط، عناصر برنامۀ درسی و نظام چندپایه بود که به صورت جداگانه و یا ترکیبی بررسی شد. همچنین در مرور پژوهش‌ها، راهکار اصلی برای رفع هریک از این چالش‌ها، طراحی و تدوین برنامۀ درسی سازگار با ویژگی‌های دانش‌آموزان و ویژگی‌های جامعۀ محلی بود. برنامه‌ای که از یک ‌سو وفادار به برنامۀ درسی ملی و از سوی دیگر مرتبط با واقعیت‌های کلاس‌های چندپایه و جامعه محلی باشد. بر این اساس، پیشنهاد می‌شود برنامۀ درسی ملی با همکاری معلمان و کارشناسان چندپایه تعدیل شود؛ به ‌گونه‌ای که بتوان برنامۀ درسی کلاس‌های تک‌پایه را بر اساس برنامۀ درسی کلاس‌های چندپایه تطبیق و یکپارچه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Systematic review of multigrade classrooms studies

نویسنده [English]

  • sara ebrahimi

Faculty member of Organization for Educational Research, Iranshahr, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to systematic review the studies of multigrade classrooms in Iran in order to classify and provide an overview of the challenges and the solutions identified and to analyze them. The present study was conducted by a qualitative method of systematic review. Reliable research were conducted by electronic search keywords of multigrade classroom, multigrade education and multigrade teaching in the databases of SID, Noormags, Google Scholar, Irandoc, Magiran, Comprehensive Portal of Humanities and The University of Tehran’s Scientific Journals Database the period of 1396-1386. The process of identification, screening, qualification, and inclusion in the sample study was performed based on the PRISMA statement. In the searches, 204 studies were identified for systematic review. After eliminating duplicates and screening, finally, 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected & analyzed. The selected documents were reviewed based on qualitative meta-analysis. In the analysis of  multigrade classrooms challenges, findings indicated 5 main categories of challenges including challenges related to teachers, students, society and environment, curriculum elements and multigrade system which were examined separately or in combination. Also, in reviewing the research, the main solution to address each of these challenges was to design and develop a curriculum consistent with the characteristics of the local community. A program that is faithful to the national curriculum on the one hand and to the realities of the multigrade classrooms and the local community on the other. Accordingly, it is suggested that the national curriculum be modified in collaboration with teachers and multigrade experts, so that the curriculum of single-grade classrooms can be adapted and integrated based on the multigrade curriculum.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Systematic Review
  • multigrade classrooms
  • challenges
  • Solutions
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